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Geography Vocabulary Word List (317)
Contents:
  1. Linguistic glossary
  2. Vocabulary History and Geography Words
  3. American History
  4. Related titles

Abraham Lincoln was asked to say His ringing declaration of democracy a few words. The president came and equality seemed to promise that prepared with a short speech the end of the war was near. But the written on the back of an envelope. Four score and seven would be a period of a. Grandfather Lincoln. The founding fathers of and grandfathers. Read the sentence pairs below. In one sentence, the italicized word is an example of figurative language.

Linguistic glossary

In the other, the word or phrase has a literal meaning. Circle the letter of the sentence that contains figurative language. The tide of war turned in favor of the North. The warship sailed on the outgoing tide. The soldier was staggering from the blow to his head. The loss of life on both sides was staggering! The Union flag was torn in two by the Confederate soldiers. In April , General Gage sent out British troops.

The arms were stored at Concord, 20 miles from Boston. Throughout Massachusetts, patriot groups called Minutemen were ready to fight for freedom from Britain. Listen, my children, and you shall hear, Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere. Of the North Church tower, as a signal light.

On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-Five; One if by land and two if by sea; Hardly a man is now alive And I on the opposite shore will be, Who remembers that famous day and year. Seeing two lights in the steeple, Revere rode through the countryside and towns. You know the rest. In the books you have read, To every Middlesex village and farm, How the British regulars fired and fled— A cry of defiance and not of fear, So through the night rode Paul Revere; A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door, And so through the night went his cry of alarm And a word that shall echo forevermore!

How the farmers gave them ball for ball For, borne on the night-wind of the Past, From behind each fence and farm-yard wall, Through all our history to the last Chasing the redcoats down the lane, In the hour of darkness and peril and need, Then crossing the fields to emerge again The people will waken and listen to hear Under the trees at the turn of the road, The hurrying hoof-beat of that steed, And only pausing to fire and load. And the midnight message of Paul Revere. Clue words are antonyms O P words with the opposite meaning of the answer words. What compound word names colonial revolutionary groups?

What compound word did the colonists use as a name for British soldiers? Hint: The words you need contain the vowels ee or ea, which have the long e sound. Paraphrase what you think Longfellow meant by the following lines. For the country folk to be up and to arm. How the British regulars fired and fled. The farmers gave them ball for ball. Get out your dictionary and thesaurus! The challenging words in this lesson were especially chosen to stretch the limits of your vocabulary.


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Complete each definition below with a word from the box. Circle the word. Then find and circle a word that is its antonym word with the opposite meaning. George will embark on a dangerous mission. Hopefully, he will return with the information. The king rewarded loyalists with favors and privileges. He punished traitors harshly. The people overthrew the despot.

They held a free election and chose a president. We will dispatch the message at dawn. If the situation changes, we will send a second messenger to retrieve the document. They carry feelings and emotions that affect the way a reader feels. For example, the words despot and ruler are synonyms—but despot is a negative word, while ruler is neutral or even positive.

Write a minus — if it has a negative connotation. Farmers, shopkeepers, and craftspeople were ready to fight the British. What is a name for regions that are lower than the land around them? What is a word for men of high social station who often gained their position by birth? What do we call a piece of land where combat has taken place? Then write only the circled letters on the lines below. What do we call the study of the Earth and its features, including its climate, plants, animals, and minerals? Write two sentences for each word, using the word in two different ways.

Test your knowledge of the vocabulary terms, skills, and concepts you will study in this unit. A glossary is an alphabetical list of unusual or specialized words from a certain field of knowledge. Following are some important words relating to history and geography. Use a dictionary if you need help. Give the word a different meaning in each sentence. Then solve the crossword puzzle with the unscrambled words that complete the sentences.

Because there were no of World War II, had some hills, we could see for miles interesting tales to tell. The daytime sky was dark. Clouds of brown dust blotted out the sun. It had been extremely dry on the Great Plains. In fact, all of the early s had been drier than usual in the Midwest. President earth. Normally, waving grasses held Roosevelt sent millions of federal the soil in place on the Great Plains. The Soil Without moisture, the grasses died Conservation Corps planted trees to and the parched ground cracked.

Winds continued to whip simply flew away. From to clouds of dust across the plains.

Vocabulary History and Geography Words

Parts of Kansas, Colorado, farmers picked up and moved out. Many of the Dust America was facing an economic Bowl migrants ended up in California. Factories were closing, There they crowded their families and people were out of work. Banks into wooden shacks. Families worked began to fail. Stocks became for a dollar a day picking fruits and worthless. This was an era known vegetables in the fields.

American History

The Great as the Great Depression. When the Depression of the s shattered farmers of the Great Plains lost their the lives of many Americans.

Word study in context

Among fields to wind and dust, they had no its worst victims were the farming other way to earn a living. What eight-letter plural noun in the reading names people who move from one place or country to another to make a new home? Replace each boldface phrase below with a word from the reading that ends with the suffix -less. In each sentence, include a word that ends in the suffix -less. The Dust Bowl farmers hoped to find greener pastures in the West. When the stock market did poorly, everything else seemed to go to pot. Use the context clues for help.

Clue words are antonyms words with the opposite meaning of the answer words. Answer the questions containing boldface compound words from the reading. Name three animals that are examples of livestock. Where would you find topsoil? What is the most likely use for farmland? Students of history often find charts helpful—especially for comparing and contrasting. Charts can show you similarities and differences at a glance.

New poison gas, fighter submarines, atom bomb Technology planes, tanks, trench warfare. Results An Allied victory! A Allies are victorious! Japanese sets up the League of surrender on August 15, ; Nations to promote world United Nations set up as peace. What four-letter proper noun names a dictator-run political party that ruled Germany from to ?

Clue words are C S synonyms words with a similar meaning of the answer words. U-boat underwater boat 3. Circle the homonym that correctly completes each sentence. Use a dictionary for help. To come up with the missing term, you must figure out the relationship between the first two terms. Then complete each analogy with a term from the reading that shows the same relationship. Find the word aggressive in the reading. Then read the synonyms for aggressive listed below. Notice that some have positive connotations and others suggest negative feelings. They stood guard over campfires and accompanied Roman warriors into battle.

Did you know that dogs have also served on modern battlefields? For many Vietnam veterans, these dogs were used to sniff out the names of famous war dogs mines, scout out enemy troops, and like Toro, Buddha, and Baron are deliver supplies. During the Vietnam War, civilians Most of the canine heroes of the were asked to donate their dogs Vietnam War met a tragic end. Of the for duty. The U. Army and Marine 4, or so dogs that served, fewer Corps trained dogs—especially than returned to the United German shepherds—to use as States. Some were turned over to the sentries, or guards.

The dogs were South Vietnamese. Members of the Vietnam Dog The war dogs of Vietnam served Handlers Association have not longer than most human soldiers. Handlers of the 39th National Cemetery. Soon the loyalty of their canine after, the president signed a bill companions. This dog handler Carl Dobbins. He spoke law requires the military to de-train emotionally of his wartime comrade, the dogs and put them up for a German shepherd partner named adoption by ex-military handlers.

What ten-letter adjective in the reading describes things that have the same meaning? What seven-letter noun names a person who has served in the armed forces? Answer 1 E words are synonyms words with a similar meaning of the boldface words in each clue sentence. A war dog usually had more than one dog trainer. Dogs have been used to find 3 4 mines and booby traps. Most of the dogs of war met a dreadful end.

DOWN 5 T 1. Dogs were drafted to serve in the Vietnam War. Americans were asked to give their dogs to the military. In , a war dog memorial was built. Draw lines to match each word in the first column with the correct definition in the second column. Write two sentences for each boldface word below. In the first sentence, use the word as it was used in the reading. In the second sentence, use the word in an entirely different context with a different meaning. In central Mexico, volcanic became a farming society. They mountains ring a large bowl of land.

Some of of a great empire. They used tree branches to Forced to defend themselves, the anchor these rafts to the lake bed. Aztec nomads became excellent Then they blanketed the rafts with warriors. According to legend, they fertile mud from the lake bottom. The received word from Huitzilopochti rich soil on these chinampas—or wheet-zee-loh-POHS-tlee —their floating gardens—was ideal for god of the sun and of warfare. Where you find the eagle and The Aztecs ruled there for cactus, build your city. In The legend says that the , the Spaniards captured Aztecs finally saw the sign they Tenochtitlan and conquered the were looking for.

It was on a Aztec empire. There the tribe once stood. They stopped hunting and. What eight-letter adjective in the reading describes a mountain that may erupt with molten rock that has built up inside? What six-letter noun in the reading names a fleshy fruit that grows on a vine and can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable? Use the boldface verb in each sentence as a puzzle clue. The answer word will be a more colorful synonym 3 word with a similar meaning from the reading. The eagle will hold a snake in its beak. The Spaniards took over Tenochtitlan.

The tribe moved down from the north. The eagle will be standing 5 D on a rock. They covered the rafts with fertile soil.


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  5. The word conquistadors, which appears in the reading, is borrowed from Spanish. So are the other words listed in the first column. Write a letter by the number to match each word with its meaning. The syllable word part written in capital letters is accented to show that it should be pronounced with the most emphasis. Rewrite each boldface word from the reading to show how it is correctly pronounced. Divide each word into syllables.

    Write the accented syllable or syllables in capital letters. In the tropics, the amount to measure distance between north of daylight differs little from season and south. That means the temperature never changes very much. Some lines of latitude have special names. The equator, for example, Two more special lines of latitude circles the center of the globe. Some features of these latitude. They are numbered from regions are unlike anywhere else on zero to 90 in each direction.

    The region between of year. Just as winter comes to the these two lines is known as the Arctic Circle, summer begins in the tropics. Most parts of the tropics have Antarctic Circle. Year around. What eight-letter adjective in the reading describes things that are lying in the same direction, always the same distance apart, and never meeting? Clue words are synonyms words with a similar meaning of the 3 O answer words.

    Then use the word you wrote in an original sentence. Only in the tropics is the sun ever a. The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn are a. Use context clues to help you select the appropriate word. He was forced to take sides. But on the contrary, the Aztecs believed the white men were gods, so they welcomed them with gifts.

    Their friendliness was a deadly mistake! If you need help, check a dictionary. You have been given the first letter as a clue. Figure out the relationship between the first two words. Then complete each analogy with a word from Unit 2 that shows the same relationship. Words may go up, down, across, backward, or diagonally. Check off each word as you find it. Write the replacement word on the line. During the s, a great flood caused much destruction on the Mid- western plains.

    Allies are usually hostile toward one another. Some 4, felines served with the U. Conquistador is a word borrowed from the French language. The Tropic of Cancer marks the northern end of the polar region. Then use each homonym in a sentence. Make sure your sentence shows the meaning of the word. If you need help, check the dictionary definition.

    Then complete the mystery word that reads from top to bottom. Use context clues for help.

    Etymology and surprising origins of words

    Then complete each analogy with a word that shows the same relationship. The same two words have different meanings in the sentences below. For help, use context clues or check a dictionary. Write a definition on the line after the sentence. Use a dictionary if needed. The hound dogs often bay at the full moon. A gulf of misunderstanding separated the boy and the old man. A one-hour drive turtle or an American crocodile in the from Miami takes southern Everglades. This area United States. Once a sleepy fishing is like nowhere else in the world! The village, Flamingo now offers services large region extends from Lake for tourists including cottages and Okeechobee in the north to Florida lodge rooms.

    If enough material was ready, or even pages would be published together. This pace was maintained until World War I forced reductions in staff. It then appeared only on the outer covers of the fascicles; the original title was still the official one and was used everywhere else. The th and last fascicle covered words from Wise to the end of W and was published on 19 April , and the full dictionary in bound volumes followed immediately.

    William Shakespeare is the most-quoted writer in the completed dictionary, with Hamlet his most-quoted work. George Eliot Mary Ann Evans is the most-quoted female writer. Collectively, the Bible is the most-quoted work but in many different translations ; the most-quoted single work is Cursor Mundi.

    Between and , enough additional material had been compiled to make a one-volume supplement, so the dictionary was reissued as the set of 12 volumes and a one-volume supplement in In , Oxford had finally put the dictionary to rest; all work ended, and the quotation slips went into storage.

    However, the English language continued to change and, by the time 20 years had passed, the dictionary was outdated. There were three possible ways to update it. The cheapest would have been to leave the existing work alone and simply compile a new supplement of perhaps one or two volumes; but then anyone looking for a word or sense and unsure of its age would have to look in three different places. The most convenient choice for the user would have been for the entire dictionary to be re-edited and retypeset , with each change included in its proper alphabetical place; but this would have been the most expensive option, with perhaps 15 volumes required to be produced.

    The OUP chose a middle approach: combining the new material with the existing supplement to form a larger replacement supplement. Robert Burchfield was hired in to edit the second supplement; [27] Onions turned 84 that year but was still able to make some contributions as well. The work on the supplement was expected to take about seven years. They were published in , , , and respectively, bringing the complete dictionary to 16 volumes, or 17 counting the first supplement.

    Burchfield emphasized the inclusion of modern-day language and, through the supplement, the dictionary was expanded to include a wealth of new words from the burgeoning fields of science and technology, as well as popular culture and colloquial speech. Burchfield said that he broadened the scope to include developments of the language in English-speaking regions beyond the United Kingdom , including North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, and the Caribbean.

    Burchfield also removed, for unknown reasons, many entries that had been added to the supplement. Some of these had only a single recorded usage, but many had multiple recorded citations, and it ran against what was thought to be the established OED editorial practice and a perception that he had opened up the dictionary to "World English".

    This was published in at dollars. There were changes in the arrangement of the volumes - for example volume 7 covered only N-Poy, the remaining "P" entries being transferred to volume 8. By the time the new supplement was completed, it was clear that the full text of the dictionary would need to be computerized. Preparation for this process began in , and editorial work started the following year under the administrative direction of Timothy J. Benbow, with John A. Simpson and Edmund S. Weiner as co-editors. Basic Books, New York. In the United States, more than typists of the International Computaprint Corporation now Reed Tech started keying in over ,, characters, their work checked by 55 proof-readers in England.

    Under a agreement, some of this software work was done at the University of Waterloo , Canada, at the Centre for the New Oxford English Dictionary , led by Frank Tompa and Gaston Gonnet ; this search technology went on to become the basis for the Open Text Corporation. Walton Litz , an English professor at Princeton University who served on the Oxford University Press advisory council, was quoted in Time as saying "I've never been associated with a project, I've never even heard of a project, that was so incredibly complicated and that met every deadline.

    By , the NOED project had achieved its primary goals, and the editors, working online, had successfully combined the original text, Burchfield's supplement, and a small amount of newer material, into a single unified dictionary. The first edition retronymically became the OED1. The Oxford English Dictionary 2 was printed in 20 volumes.

    For the second edition, there was no attempt to start them on letter boundaries, and they were made roughly equal in size. The 20 volumes started with A , B. The content of the OED2 is mostly just a reorganization of the earlier corpus, but the retypesetting provided an opportunity for two long-needed format changes. The headword of each entry was no longer capitalized, allowing the user to readily see those words that actually require a capital letter.

    The British quiz show Countdown has awarded the leather-bound complete version to the champions of each series since its inception in When the print version of the second edition was published in , the response was enthusiastic. Author Anthony Burgess declared it "the greatest publishing event of the century", as quoted by the Los Angeles Times. The supplements and their integration into the second edition were a great improvement to the OED as a whole, but it was recognized that most of the entries were still fundamentally unaltered from the first edition.

    Much of the information in the dictionary published in was already decades out of date, though the supplements had made good progress towards incorporating new vocabulary. Yet many definitions contained disproven scientific theories, outdated historical information, and moral values that were no longer widely accepted.

    Accordingly, it was recognized that work on a third edition would have to begin to rectify these problems. However, in the end only three Additions volumes were published this way, two in and one in , [45] [46] [47] each containing about 3, new definitions. New text search databases offered vastly more material for the editors of the dictionary to work with, and with publication on the Web as a possibility, the editors could publish revised entries much more quickly and easily than ever before. Revisions were started at the letter M , with new material appearing every three months on the OED Online website.

    The editors chose to start the revision project from the middle of the dictionary in order that the overall quality of entries be made more even, since the later entries in the OED1 generally tended to be better than the earlier ones. However, in March , the editors announced that they would alternate each quarter between moving forward in the alphabet as before and updating "key English words from across the alphabet, along with the other words which make up the alphabetical cluster surrounding them".

    The revision is expected to roughly double the dictionary in size. John Simpson was the first chief editor of the OED3. He retired in and was replaced by Michael Proffitt , who is the eighth chief editor of the dictionary. The production of the new edition exploits computer technology, particularly since the June inauguration of the "Perfect All-Singing All-Dancing Editorial and Notation Application ", or "Pasadena".

    With this XML -based system, lexicographers can spend less effort on presentation issues such as the numbering of definitions. This system has also simplified the use of the quotations database, and enabled staff in New York to work directly on the dictionary in the same way as their Oxford-based counterparts. Other important computer uses include internet searches for evidence of current usage, and email submissions of quotations by readers and the general public. Wordhunt was a appeal to the general public for help in providing citations for 50 selected recent words, and produced antedatings for many.

    The OED ' s readers contribute quotations: the department currently receives about , a year. OED currently contains over , entries. In , the volume OED1 was reprinted as a two-volume Compact Edition , by photographically reducing each page to one-half its linear dimensions; each compact edition page held four OED1 pages in a four-up "4-up" format.

    The two volume letters were A and P ; the first supplement was at the second volume's end. The Compact Edition included, in a small slip-case drawer, a magnifying glass to help in reading reduced type. Many copies were inexpensively distributed through book clubs. In , the second supplement was published as a third volume to the Compact Edition.

    In , for the volume OED2 , the compact edition format was re-sized to one-third of original linear dimensions, a nine-up "9-up" format requiring greater magnification, but allowing publication of a single-volume dictionary. Once the text of the dictionary was digitized and online, it was also available to be published on CD-ROM.

    The text of the first edition was made available in Version 1 was identical in content to the printed second edition, and the CD itself was not copy-protected. Version 2 included the Oxford English Dictionary Additions of and Version 3. It has been reported that this version will work on operating systems other than Microsoft Windows , using emulation programs. The online edition is the most up-to-date version of the dictionary available. The OED web site is not optimized for mobile devices, but the developers have stated that there are plans to provide an API that would enable developers to develop different interfaces for querying the OED.

    Some public libraries and companies have subscribed, as well, including public libraries in the United Kingdom, where access is funded by the Arts Council , [72] and public libraries in New Zealand. The OED 's utility and renown as a historical dictionary have led to numerous offspring projects and other dictionaries bearing the Oxford name, though not all are directly related to the OED itself. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , originally started in and completed in , [76] is an abridgement of the full work that retains the historical focus, but does not include any words which were obsolete before except those used by Shakespeare , Milton , Spenser , and the King James Bible.

    The Concise Oxford Dictionary is a different work, which aims to cover current English only, without the historical focus. Fowler and H. Fowler to be compressed, compact, and concise. Its primary source is the Oxford English Dictionary, and it is nominally an abridgment of the Concise Oxford Dictionary.

    It was first published in Instead, it was an entirely new dictionary produced with the aid of corpus linguistics. The OED lists British headword spellings e. For the suffix more commonly spelt -ise in British English, OUP policy dictates a preference for the spelling -ize , e. Hint: The words you need contain the vowels ee or ea, which have the long e sound. Paraphrase what you think Longfellow meant by the following lines. For the country folk to be up and to arm.

    How the British regulars fired and fled. The farmers gave them ball for ball. The challenging words in this lesson were especially chosen to stretch the limits of your vocabulary. Complete each definition below with a word from the box. Circle the word. Then find and circle a word that is its antonym word with the opposite meaning. George will embark on a dangerous mission.

    Hopefully, he will return with the information. The king rewarded loyalists with favors and privileges. He punished traitors harshly. The people overthrew the despot. They held a free election and chose a president. We will dispatch the message at dawn. If the situation changes, we will send a second messenger to retrieve the document.

    They carry feelings and emotions that affect the way a reader feels. For example, the words despot and ruler are synonyms—but despot is a negative word, while ruler is neutral or even positive. Write a minus — if it has a negative connotation. Farmers, shopkeepers, and craftspeople were ready to fight the British. What is a name for regions that are lower than the land around them? What is a word for men of high social station who often gained their position by birth?

    What do we call a piece of land where combat has taken place? Then write only the circled letters on the lines below. Write two sentences for each word, using the word in two different ways. Following are some important words relating to history and geography. Use a dictionary if you need help. Give the word a different meaning in each sentence.

    Then solve the crossword puzzle with the unscrambled words that complete the sentences. Clouds of brown dust blotted out the sun. It had been extremely dry on the Great Plains. In fact, all of the early s had been drier than usual in the Midwest. Normally, waving grasses held the soil in place on the Great Plains.


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    Without moisture, the grasses died and the parched ground cracked. When heavy winds came, the topsoil simply flew away. From to , dust storms and drought turned good farmland into a desert of dust. America was facing an economic depression. Factories were closing, and people were out of work. Banks began to fail. Stocks became worthless. This was an era known as the Great Depression. When the farmers of the Great Plains lost their fields to wind and dust, they had no other way to earn a living. The government offered the farmers what help it could. President Roosevelt sent millions of federal dollars to Dust Bowl states.

    The Soil Conservation Corps planted trees to hold the soil. Winds continued to whip clouds of dust across the plains. When the dust buried houses, fields, livestock, and wildlife, many farmers picked up and moved out. They hoped to find greener pastures in the West. But the western states were already filled with homeless, jobless Americans. Many of the Dust Bowl migrants ended up in California.

    There they crowded their families into wooden shacks. Families worked for a dollar a day picking fruits and vegetables in the fields. The Great Depression of the s shattered the lives of many Americans. Among its worst victims were the farming families of the Dust Bowl. What eight-letter plural noun in the reading names people who move from one place or country to another to make a new home?

    Replace each boldface phrase below with a word from the reading that ends with the suffix -less. In each sentence, include a word that ends in the suffix -less. The Dust Bowl farmers hoped to find greener pastures in the West. When the stock market did poorly, everything else seemed to go to pot. Use the context clues for help. Answer the questions containing boldface compound words from the reading. Name three animals that are examples of livestock.

    Where would you find topsoil? What is the most likely use for farmland? Charts can show you similarities and differences at a glance. A peace treaty drawn up in Versailles, and France sets up the League of Nations to promote world peace. Japanese surrender on August 15, ; United Nations set up as peacekeeping organization What four-letter proper noun names a dictator-run political party that ruled Germany from to ? U-boat underwater boat 3. Circle the homonym that correctly completes each sentence.

    Use a dictionary for help. To come up with the missing term, you must figure out the relationship between the first two terms. Then complete each analogy with a term from the reading that shows the same relationship. Find the word aggressive in the reading. Then read the synonyms for aggressive listed below. Notice that some have positive connotations and others suggest negative feelings.

    They stood guard over campfires and accompanied Roman warriors into battle. Did you know that dogs have also served on modern battlefields? During the Vietnam War, civilians were asked to donate their dogs for duty. The U. Army and Marine Corps trained dogs—especially German shepherds—to use as sentries, or guards. The dogs were also enlisted for infantry duty. For this assignment they were taught to track, scout, and detect mines. The war dogs of Vietnam served longer than most human soldiers. When a dog handler ended a tour of duty, the dog was reassigned to a new handler.

    Handlers of the 39th Infantry Scout Dog Platoon describe the loyalty of their canine companions. He spoke emotionally of his wartime comrade, a German shepherd partner named Toro. For many Vietnam veterans, the names of famous war dogs like Toro, Buddha, and Baron are synonymous with the word hero. Most of the canine heroes of the Vietnam War met a tragic end. Of the 4, or so dogs that served, fewer than returned to the United States. Some were turned over to the South Vietnamese. Members of the Vietnam Dog Handlers Association have not forgotten their heroes.

    The statue was dedicated in February Soon after, the president signed a bill protecting the dogs of war when they are no longer needed for service. This law requires the military to de-train the dogs and put them up for adoption by ex-military handlers. What ten-letter adjective in the reading describes things that have the same meaning? What seven-letter noun names a person who has served in the armed forces? Answer words are synonyms words with a similar meaning of the boldface words in each clue sentence.

    A war dog usually had more than one dog trainer. Dogs have been used to find mines and booby traps. Most of the dogs of war met a dreadful end. Dogs were drafted to serve in the Vietnam War. Americans were asked to give their dogs to the military. In , a war dog memorial was built. Draw lines to match each word in the first column with the correct definition in the second column. Write two sentences for each boldface word below. In the first sentence, use the word as it was used in the reading. In the second sentence, use the word in an entirely different context with a different meaning.

    Around A. Some of these people were a tribe who would become known as the Aztecs. Unfortunately, they drifted from the north just when wars between small city-states were being fought in central Mexico. Forced to defend themselves, the Aztec nomads became excellent warriors. According to legend, they received word from Huitzilopochti wheet-zee-loh-POHS-tlee —their god of the sun and of warfare. Where you find the eagle and cactus, build your city.

    There the tribe settled. They stopped hunting and became a farming society. Because it was a swampland, Tenochtitlan could not grow enough crops to feed its population. So Aztec builders constructed reed rafts in shallow parts of the lake. They used tree branches to anchor these rafts to the lake bed. Then they blanketed the rafts with fertile mud from the lake bottom. The rich soil on these chinampas—or floating gardens—was ideal for growing corn, squash, and beans. This method of farming turned the swampy island of Tenochtitlan into a powerful capital city.

    The Aztecs ruled there for hundreds of years—until the Spanish conquistadors arrived. In , the Spaniards captured Tenochtitlan and conquered the Aztec empire. Today, Mexico City stands on the site where Tenochtitlan once stood. What eight-letter adjective in the reading describes a mountain that may erupt with molten rock that has built up inside? What six-letter noun in the reading names a fleshy fruit that grows on a vine and can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable?

    Use the boldface verb in each sentence as a puzzle clue. The answer word will be a more colorful synonym word with a similar meaning from the reading. The eagle will hold a snake in its beak. The Spaniards took over Tenochtitlan. The tribe moved down from the north. The eagle will be standing on a rock. They covered the rafts with fertile soil.

    The word conquistadors, which appears in the reading, is borrowed from Spanish. So are the other words listed in the first column. Write a letter by the number to match each word with its meaning. The syllable word part written in capital letters is accented to show that it should be pronounced with the most emphasis. Divide each word into syllables.

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    Write the accented syllable or syllables in capital letters. Can you see lines that run east and west? These parallel lines, which are all the same distance from each other, are lines of latitude. They are imaginary lines used to measure distance between north and south. Some lines of latitude have special names. The equator, for example, circles the center of the globe.

    Distances north and south of the equator are measured in degrees of latitude. They are numbered from zero to 90 in each direction. The region between these two lines is known as the tropics. Most parts of the tropics have a very distinct climate. Only in the tropics does the sun ever shine directly overhead.

    These direct rays produce higher temperatures than slanted rays. In the tropics, the amount of daylight differs little from season to season. That means the temperature never changes very much. Some features of these regions are unlike anywhere else on the Earth. During the shortest day of winter, about December 21, the sun never rises. The same phenomenon occurs in the Antarctic Circle at the opposite time of year.

    Just as winter comes to the Arctic Circle, summer begins in the Antarctic Circle. What eight-letter adjective in the reading describes things that are lying in the same direction, always the same distance apart, and never meeting? Then use the word you wrote in an original sentence. Only in the tropics is the sun ever a.