- Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016
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- DEA1 - Degradation of polyethylene by means of radical formers - Google Patents
An inventive device is suitable for double-side polishing of disk-shaped workpieces, in particular semiconductor wafers. It comprises a top and a bottom, each rotatable about a common axis of rotation polishing plate, and disposed between the upper and lower polishing plate armature discs for receiving the workpieces.
The associated to the polishing plates surfaces are in particular ring-shaped. On the side facing the workpieces surfaces of the upper and the lower polishing plate, a polishing cloth with a thickness of at most 2 mm is applied in each case, wherein at least one of facing the workpieces surfaces of the upper and the lower polishing plate, a plastic layer between the respective surface and the respective polishing cloth is inserted.
Also has one of the polishing plate, eddy current sensors, which are adapted to detect a distance between the facing surfaces of the work pieces of the upper and lower polishing plate.
By the introduced plastic layer which is not electrically conductive and particularly preferably has a high rigidity, the distance between the surfaces of the polishing pad, ie the working or polishing gap increased. Nahbereich der Wirbelstromsensoren zu sein. This makes it possible to use thin polishing cloths and still adjust the working gap large enough not to be in the so-called. Vicinity of the eddy current sensors. It is also advantageous if a corresponding plastic layer is introduced both in the face of the upper as well as at the surface of the lower polishing plate in each case between the surface and the polishing cloth.
In this way, the plastic layer can also serve as a reinforcement of the polishing cloths. Kleben, auf die Kunststoffschicht aufgebracht werden. The polishing cloth may be applied to the plastic layer by means of suitable methods, for example. By using the thin polishing cloths, further at most 0. The polishing cloths are, in particular as a foamed polishing cloths, in particular of polyurethane, optionally provided with additives.
The disadvantages of the hitherto conventional polishing with thick, compressible polishing cloths and a gape, namely uneven pressure load of the polishing cloths and edge drop so-called. Depending on the preferred embodiment, a uniform distribution of the polishing composition can be achieved on or in the polishing cloth with such a polishing medium feeds in the polishing plates. By means of nozzles, the polishing agent, for example. Be applied in the form of a fine fan beam uniformly on the front of the respective opposite surface of polishing cloth.
An unfavorable flow of the polishing agent on the towels is thus avoided, since a fine and homogeneous film is based on the polishing cloth surface, which can not easily proceed. By means of corresponding channels can, for example, the polishing agent in blind holes in the polishing cloths, which means are directed into the polishing cloth body, from which the polishing agent on micro-bores or channels is distributed by capillary action within the polishing cloths.
Also in this method, a fine and homogeneous film polishing agent on the polishing cloth surface is built up, which can not easily proceed by the centrifugal forces. In this case, correspondingly prepared polishing cloths are provided. Even when the upper and lower polishing plates is a combination of both embodiments, eg.
Different conceivable. Through this type of slurry supplying also the low thickness of the polishing cloth is taken into account, since thereby a better distribution polishing agent and so a more uniform compressive load is achieved. Advantageously, the polishing medium feeds are arranged with mutually different distances to the rotational axis to allow different dosages of polishing agent. Thus a radially uneven polish distribution, caused by the centrifugal force acting on the polishing agent during polishing, can be met. Thus a more uniform polishing agent distribution and thus a better polishing results are achieved.
An inventive method is used for double-side polishing of disk-shaped workpieces, in particular semiconductor wafers, by means of an upper and a lower, rotatable in each case about a common axis of rotation polishing plate, and between the upper and arranged to the lower polishing plate armature discs for receiving the workpieces. Here, on the side facing the workpieces surfaces of the upper and the lower polishing plate each applied to a polishing cloth with a thickness of at most 2 mm, whereby a plastic layer at least one of facing the workpieces surfaces of the upper and the lower polishing plate during the application of the polishing cloth respective between the surface and the respective polishing cloth is inserted.
By means of eddy current sensors with mutually different distances to the rotation axis in any one of the polishing plate, respectively, a distance between the facing the workpieces surfaces of the upper and the lower polishing plate is detected, and based on the detected distances, the side facing the workpieces surfaces of the upper and the lower polishing plate are mutually adjusted plane-parallel. In particular, when determining the at least one value for the thickness of the disc-shaped workpieces a current compression the applied pressure on the polishing plate with polishing cloths is considered.
So that the actual thickness of the workpieces can be determined more precisely during the polishing process. Dies ist bspw. This is the example. Advantageous to know when the polishing process is to be ended or must. The thickness of the plastic layer and the polishing cloths can be eliminated during polishing on the determined distance then, thereby obtaining the thickness of the workpieces.
In this case, wear of the polishing cloths can also be considered, for example. Also through reference values, which are determined in trials. In this way, a characterization of the polishing cloth during the polishing process, a kind of online polishing cloth characterization is possible. Various stages of polishing, which are characterized by different pressures on the polishing plate. The corresponding static pressures for example. By means of pressure sensors are determined by the respective phases using a reference workpiece of known thickness to be adjusted.
Weitere Verfeinerungen sind bspw. Further refinements are, for example. Possible by new and used polishing cloths are measured separately, ie each having its own reference values. The thickness of the polishing cloth to the different phases can then be made of the distance of the polishing plate, determine the workpiece that is to say the working gap by subtracting the known thickness of the plastic layers and the reference.
Thus, a more accurate determination of the actual thickness of the workpieces may be carried out during polishing, despite compression of the polishing cloth by means of the eddy-current sensors. For this purpose, it should be noted that even thin polishing cloths, as they are used according to the invention, having a certain compressibility, even if less than thicker polishing cloths used so far.
Particularly advantageous is the finally carrying out a method according to the invention by means of a device according to the invention. It is understood that the features mentioned above and useful features to be explained not only in the respectively specified combination but also in other combinations or even alone, without departing from the scope of the present invention. The invention is diagrammatically illustrated by way of an embodiment in the drawing and will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings. Figurenbeschreibung figure description.
Rolling device can be moved, shown in cross section. Auf dem unteren Polierteller On the lower polishing plate 21 21 befindet sich ein Poliertuch There is a polishing cloth 11 Der The 1 1 ist weiterhin zu entnehmen, dass der Abstand zwischen oberem Polierteller is further seen that the distance between the upper polishing plate 22 22 und unterem Polierteller and lower polishing plate 21 21 nicht exakt parallel ist.
Nach innen hin wird der Abstand, der sog. Inwardly the distance, the so-called. Working or polishing gap is slightly larger. Es handelt sich dabei um eine sog.
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Klaffung, wie eingangs bereits beschrieben. This is a so-called. Gape, as already described. Eine solche Klaffung wird bspw. Demzufolge wird das Poliertuch Accordingly, the polishing cloth 12 12 auch unterschiedlich stark zusammengepresst. Zwischen dem oberen Polierteller Between the upper polishing plate 22 22 und dem Poliertuch and the polishing cloth 12 12 ist eine Kunststoffschicht is a plastic layer 52 52 eingebracht. Ebenso ist zwischen dem unteren Polierteller Likewise, between the lower polishing plate, 21 21 und dem Poliertuch and the polishing cloth 11 11 eine Kunststoffschicht a plastic layer 51 51 eingebracht.
By thin polishing cloths for polishing a better polishing agent and pressure distribution can be achieved. Durch die Kunststoffschichten The plastic layers 51 51 ,. Damit wird eine genaue Abstandsmessung der metallischen Polierteller Thus a precise distance measurement metallic polishing plate 21 21 ,. Will get removed. Mittels Abstandsmessung kann der Arbeitsspalt dabei planparallel eingestellt werden. By distance measurement, the working gap can be adjusted in plane-parallel. It should be noted that the polishing medium feeds enable with varying radial distance from the axis of rotation different dosages.
Thus a polish redistribution due to centrifugal force during polishing can be met. The preferred embodiment described herein, an inventive apparatus for double-sided polishing of disk-shaped workpieces is also particularly suitable for carrying out an online polishing cloth characterization to determine the actual thickness of the workpieces for compressible polishing cloths. This list of references cited by the applicant is generated automatically and is included solely to inform the reader. Bei der Tauchbeschichtung wird die zu beschichtende Glasscheibe in das Sol getaucht und dann langsam herausgezogen.
In dip coating, to be coated glass sheet is dipped into the sol and then pulled up slowly. Es kommen aber auch andere Auftragverfahren in Betracht. Here in particular nor the spray to name. Even with this coating process is still pretty accurate adjustment of the applied amount of coating material possible, this method allows a much faster job simultaneously. The invention is particularly suitable for coating soda-lime glasses. The high sodium content of such glasses suited for this chemical tempering.
Zudem haften die Sol-Gel-Schichten sehr gut auf einem solchen Glas. In addition, the sol-gel layers adhere very well to such a glass. With the invention allows an increase in the breaking strength by at least a factor of 2. The invention will be explained in more detail by means of embodiments and with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Es zeigen: Show it:. Auf die Glasscheibe On the glass pane 3 3 ist beidseitig auf den Seiten on both sides on the sides 5 5 ,. Die Beschichtung kann insbesondere als dreilagige Entspiegelungsschicht ausgebildet sein. The coating can in particular be formed as a three-layer antireflection coating. Dazu weisen die Lagen For this purpose, the layers 11 11 ,.
Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016
Der Brechungsindex der Lage The refractive index of the layer 11 11 liegt dabei zwischen den Brechungsindizes der Lagen is between the refractive indices of the layers 12 12 und and 13 A sol-gel process, as this invention is used, is a wet-chemical coating method, can be produced with the inorganic oxide layers.
The preparation of the coating is in each case from a liquid sol, which is converted by a sol-gel transformation into a solid gel state. The sol in this case represents a dispersion of particles that typically have sizes in the range well below 1 micrometer. In many cases, organometallic compounds are used as precursor materials for the coating, in which case the term "metal" also semiconductors such as silicon with particular includes.
In the transformation of the sol into a gel, there is a crosslinking of the dispersed particles in the solvent. If the sol is applied and transferred to a gel, the coating thus obtained is still - preferably annealed under air or in other oxidizing environment, such that residual organic constituents of the coating pyrolyze and a compacted inorganic oxide layer is obtained. Die Umsetzung des metallorganischen Precursors erfolgt typischerweise durch Hydrolyse- und Kondensationsreaktionen.
The reaction of the organometallic precursor typically prepared by hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The starting compound the precursor to prepare a coating solution containing a metal or transition metal, for example, silicon, the most commonly used precursor compounds are metal alkoxides, and salts.
Sol preparation for one or more starting compounds, optionally hydrolyzed under acid or base catalysis in aqueous or organic solvents and optionally at least partially condensed. Among other things mixed oxide can thereby be established. For the production of silicon oxide is suitable as a precursor among others TEOS tetraethoxysilane. Titanium oxide layers can be produced, for example, with titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor. Es bildet sich dann durch Hydrolyse und Kondensation eine kolloidale Dispersion von Metall-Alkoxiden, welche auf das zu beschichtende Glas aufgetragen wird.
It is then formed by hydrolysis and condensation of a colloidal dispersion of metal alkoxides, which is applied to the glass to be coated. Nachfolgend wird das Glas getempert. Subsequently, the glass is tempered. Dazu wird die Glasscheibe For this, the glass pane 3 3 in einer Kaliumnitrat-haltigen Schmelze, vorzugsweise einer Kaliumnitrat-Schmelze mehrere Stunden gelagert. Die Kalium-Ionen der Schmelze diffundieren dabei durch die Sol-Gel-Beschichtung The potassium ion of the melt thereby to diffuse through the sol-gel coating 9 9 hindurch in das Glas der Glasscheibe and into the glass of the glass sheet 3 3 hinein.
Umgekehrt diffundieren Natrium-Ionen des Glases durch die Beschichtung Conversely diffused sodium ions of the glass through the coating 9 9 hindurch in die Schmelze. These ranges are generally much deeper than the layer thicknesses of the individual layers of an optical interference sol-gel coating, which typically have thicknesses smaller than the wavelengths of light of the optical spectral range.
The resistance measurement was carried out by the glass sheets placed on a ring of mm in inner diameter and then pressure was applied to the glass sheet on which is situated above the center of the ring point of the surface, until the glass sheet broke. Measured value B is the measurement of a similar sheet of glass, which was equipped with a three-layer antireflection coating by a sol-gel coating.
The sol-gel coating has little effect on the strength. The slight variations in strength relative to the untreated glass are within the measurement uncertainty. Measured value C is the measured strength to an inventively treated glass plate which was provided only with a three-layer anti-reflection layer and then chemically prestressed. Dabei wurde die Glasscheibe The glass disc was 4 4 Stunden im kaliumnitrat-haltigen Bad gelagert.
The comparison with the measured value A shows that the strength is by a factor of 3 higher than the untreated sheet of float glass. Also, the strength is comparable, surprisingly, with the uncoated, chemically tempered glass measured value D. The measured value to measured value D glasses strength, although sometimes still higher, but there was also a significantly longer preload time, 16 hours a potassium nitrate-containing molten salt used.
It is found that even a three-layer sol-gel coating, surprisingly has little influence on the achievable strength, although here the potassium ions to pass into the glass through the coating and vice versa sodium ions must diffuse through the coating into the melt. The method according to the preceding claim, characterized in that a sol-gel coating is prepared which contains at least one of the elements Si, Ti, Al, Ta, Nb, Zr oxide.
A method according to any one of claims 2 or 3, characterized in that a sol-gel coating having a mixed oxide of at least two of said elements in the two preceding claims is made. A method according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the ion exchange in a potassium nitrate-containing medium, preferably a potassium nitrate-containing melt is effected.
A method according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the glass is coated with an antireflection coating in the sol-gel method. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the sol-gel coating is applied by dip coating or spray coating. A method according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the glass for chemical tempering longer than 30 minutes, preferably at least 3 hours, stored in a potassium-containing solution. Coated sodium-containing glass, produced using a method according to one of the preceding claims, provided with a sol-gel coating in the form of a multilayer interference layer and is chemically prestressed, characterized in that the chemical bias after formation of the sol-gel coating is performed in a potassium-containing medium so that sodium ions of the glass are at least partially replaced in regions near the surface by potassium ions, wherein the ion exchange is effected by the heat-treated sol-gel coating therethrough, said multi-layer sol-gel layer contains from solution due to the chemical biasing potassium.
Coated sodium-containing glass according to claim 11, characterized in that the coating contains at least one of the elements Si, Ti, Al, Ta, Nb, Zr oxide. Coated sodium-containing glass according to claim 11 or 12, characterized in that the sol-gel coating contains a mixed oxide of at least two of said elements in the two preceding claims.
Coated sodium-containing glass according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the glass is coated with a multi-layer sol-gel coating. Coated sodium-containing glass according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the glass is coated with an antireflection coating in the sol-gel method.
Coated sodium-containing glass according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the glass by at least a factor of 2. Coated sodium-containing glass according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the glass is a soda-lime glass. DE DEB4 en A process for producing coated glass with increased strength, and methods produced according glass product. DEB4 en. DEA1 en. Coated glass or glass-ceramic substrate with durable multi-functional surface properties, to processes for its preparation and its use. Glass-strengthening coating material, strengthened glass block and touch-sensitive display device protected by strengthened glass.
A method for manufacturing a cover glass element, in particular for displays of mobile electronic devices and process produced according coverslip. A process for producing a coated chemically tempered glass substrate with anti-fingerprint characteristics as well as the glass substrate prepared.
DEA1 - Degradation of polyethylene by means of radical formers - Google Patents
Asymmetrically constructed, on both surface sides chemically tempered thin glass pane, processes for their preparation and their use. Glass substrate for chemical strengthening and method for chemically strengthening with controlled curvature. Coating glass or ceramic substrate with anti-reflective layer using sol-gel process, employs e.