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Neutral density variation from specular meteor echo observations spanning one solar cycle
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Visit the website to view videos of sea turtle migration and nesting; read facts sheets on endangered sea turtle species; and download lesson plans exploring topics such as sea turtle adaptations, threats, food webs, poaching, and the impact of plastics in the oceans on sea turtles.

Teachers can also download the Turtle Talks Activity Book, which presents 20 pages of turtle-themed games, puzzles, coloring sheets, and glossary interspersed with facts and information about endangered sea turtles and how to help protect them. The Great Herbs for Kids Handout presents growing requirements and other information about several easy-to-cultivate herbs including sage, sunflowers, chives, and lemon verbena. Other notable resources focus on sensory gardens, such as the handouts Herbs for the Sensory Garden and Sensory Gardens for Special Education Students.

In addition to highlighting the benefits of creating such gardens with students, these documents suggest activities to help teachers connect the garden to curriculum in math, science, health, and other subjects. The activities are diverse and adaptable—they can be used in both formal and informal settings and can be modified to suit various grade levels and time available.

Visit the website to download printable PDFs of the activities and access background information and learning standards connections. The activities address New York state standards, however, teachers in other locations can use the standards as a guide to identify similar learning goals in their states. Culled from Smithsonian collaborators e. Middle level students study marine animal adaptations in Long Live the Sharks and Rays Discovery, grades 6—8 , while in Haunted by Hurricanes Virginia Sea Grant, grades 9—12 , high school students learn about how hurricanes form and examine how changing weather patterns affect hurricane development and patterns.

The encyclopedias covering topics in science and alternative energy and sustainable living follow a standard encyclopedic format, presenting topics alphabetically and including text, images, and related links for each entry. These books feature text, images, diagrams, and glossaries and address a wide range of topics, including heat, matter, optics, sound, flight e.

Astronomy From the Ground Up AFGU —Astronomical Society of the Pacific's community of informal educators from museums, science centers, nature centers, and parks around the country—offers several interesting resources to engage audiences of all ages in learning about our solar system. One highlight is the Pocket Solar System model. Most appropriate for upper elementary and middle levels, this simple solar system scale model is created by folding a length of adding machine tape in fractional increments one half, one fourth, one eighth, one sixteenth, and so on until the planets and large bodies between the Sun and Pluto and the Kuiper belt are all marked on the tape.

The model helps students visualize the vast emptiness of the outer solar system and the relative crowdedness of the inner solar system, and it doubles as a tool for reviewing fractions! My Sky Tonight, another noteworthy resource developed collaboratively by AFGU and partners, brings age-appropriate astronomy and science understandings to preschool learners and families.

These research-based astronomy activities include accompanying videos and address topics such as shadows, the Moon, day and night, and more. The Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago MSI has several apps, videos, and hands-on activities to engage elementary and middle level teachers, students, and their families in the joy of science discovery. Play with levers, pulleys, and other simple machines—and explore physics—in the interactive app Simple Machines, or watch The Hatchery, a time-lapse video of chicks hatching, to observe life cycle processes in action.

The site also features simple activities for exploring biology, chemistry, environmental science, and physics topics in the classroom or at home. For example, students can investigate energy transformations in activities such as Wind Turbines and Roller Coaster; study genetic material from fruit in Strawberry DNA; learn how worms keep a garden healthy in Worm Farm; and explore how sound works by building a Straw Pipe.

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This UK-based website has tons of soil resources for teachers and students of all levels from elementary to high school. The secondary resources for ages 11—16 address the same themes as the primary resources but are presented in encyclopedic format with in-depth text, images, and case study examples to extend learning. Each secondary section also includes an online quiz to consolidate understanding.

Other tools of interest on the website are a photo library of 2, copyright-free images of soil and the TerrainBuilder erosion simulator, which enables students to explore the effects of water erosion on differing landscapes. This website is a one-stop location for K—12 education resources about migratory birds and bird conservation. Search a data base of resources contributed by members of the bird conservation community, including fact sheets, curricula, and activities; increase your Bird IQ with animations, fun facts, and interactive quizzes for all ages; or explore bird basics and more through downloadable resources developed for World Migratory Day, many of which are available in both Spanish and English e.

Other notable downloads encourage learners to get outside and investigate, such as the activities Life Cycle Wheels grades 3 and up , Go Birding Geocache grades 4 and up ; and Leading a Birdwalk educators. Thinking about trying a school gardening project with elementary and middle level students?

Get inspired by the PowerPoint presentations from participating teachers in the CitySprouts program, a Massachusetts-based education initiative for K—8 schools focused on urban gardening. The presentations feature a diverse range of projects from planting and harvesting ancient grains to using technology in the school garden and more.

The projects, which were conducted by students and teachers from various grades in PreK—7, showcase the many ways and subjects that garden-based learning can be incorporated into the curriculum at any level. The bronze level free offers members access to multimedia resource collections to bring science, literature, history, the Arts, and other subjects to life in classrooms or at home.

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Each collection contains stories and resources e. An in-depth User Guide presented in story format—complete with supportive guides, tools, and videos—is available to help teachers and other users integrate the Awesome Stories website into the classroom or other learning environments. Developed by the Bonneville Environmental Foundation BEF , and targeted for environmentalists of all ages—including students and teachers from the middle and high school levels—this website features tools and information to explore your personal environmental footprint i.

Calculate your carbon and water footprints, then visit the Expand Your Knowledge section to learn more about energy and water use along with simple but effective ideas to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve water. The Take Action section encourages users to join the Change the Course campaign, a national freshwater restoration program in which every online pledge to conserve water is matched by funding from corporate sponsors to restore 1, gallons to critically depleted rivers, streams, and wetlands.

K—12 students and teachers alike can develop agricultural literacy with the resources at this website. Visit the Teacher Center to explore agriculture and farm life in degrees through Virtual Reality experiences and virtual field trips; search for K—12 ag lessons in the National Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix; learn about agricultural production in all 50 states; or subscribe to AgroWorld, an E-zine for grades 9—12 packed with news bits, classroom resources, and other student-friendly science, technology, and society connections to agriculture.

The Student Center features resources highlighting careers in the industry, including video interviews with agriculture professionals from different fields and interactive websites e. Or, click on Science Heroes to read career profiles of researchers from various disciplines e. This searchable and standards-based online curriculum map for K—12 teachers includes lessons from the Foundation as well as curriculum from other states. Discover the amazing world of soils with images and information from the Dig It!

The museum exhibit closed some time ago, but its content—along with new material on soils—is available online. Suitable for K—8 audiences, website highlights include a soil quiz to test knowledge; a set of interactive postcards showcasing soils from each of the 50 United States, and a collection of career profile cards spotlighting soil science—related professions, such as conservationist, ecologist, educator, engineer, and planetary scientist. Interested students can use this resource to learn about schools that offer healthcare-related degrees and about careers in the medical field.

The site features school ranking lists, videos, and useful information for the career decision making process. Visitors can learn which careers are growing the fastest and are in demand.

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Information is provided about career opportunities in each state. The Ecology Society of America ESA has several resources to enhance ecology instruction and understanding at the undergraduate collegiate level. This resource presents a set of recommendations for ecology curricula. The framework can be used as a benchmark for instructors currently teaching undergraduate General Ecology and also as a guide for instructors developing new courses.

The EcoEd Digital Library, another notable resource, is a forum for scientists and educators to locate and contribute peer-reviewed resources for teaching undergraduate ecology.

Rock Creek Park Nature Center and Planetarium - Rock Creek Park (U.S. National Park Service)

Please note: Library users can read descriptions of the resources but must create a free account to access the resources themselves. At GardenABCs—an online forum for K—12 teachers, parents, and community with a passion for gardening—members can share gardening challenges and successes and find many resources to help start and maintain learning gardens. There are how-to articles with links embedded , suggested activities to do each month in the garden, and a blog addressing various garden topics from finding funding for your garden project to the health benefits of gardening and more.

On the Cutting Edge is a professional development program for geoscience faculty focused on improving geoscience teaching at introductory college and undergraduate levels. Led by the National Association of Geoscience Teachers NAGT , one major goal of the program is to develop a website with topical collections of vetted teaching resources on various geoscience themes. The collection includes links to many geoscience resources organized by theme such as How to Use Visualizations in Class e.

The site also presents news and information about upcoming events, workshops, webinars, and opportunities for geoscience educators. Educators of all levels, K—college, can learn more about climate change using this website. It presents real data sets, animations, and case studies demonstrating the effects of climate change on different realms: the Atmosphere, Oceans and Water, Ice, and Land and Living Systems. The website has many lessons, activities, and other resources to help teachers and students of all levels, K—college, learn—and do—more to increase their ecoliteracy. Want to facilitate elementary science learning beyond traditional textbooks?

You can with the interactive lesson plans and printable worksheets for grades PreK—5 from Education. The database has more than science lesson plans addressing everyday science topics such as the weather, five senses, landforms, color spectrum, solar system, water cycle, animal adaptations, human body, and more.

The lessons are simply designed so that teachers and parents can easily conduct activities in the classroom or at home, and they encompass a wide variety of learning experiences from Identifying Living and Nonliving Things with preschoolers to the participating in the Wacky Windmill Challenge, an engineering design activity for fifth-grade students. At the site, users can scroll over a title without clicking to view a lesson synopsis and grade level, or filter search results by grade level or subject.

Free registration is required to download the lessons. Do your students suffer from plant blindness, i. The principles provide a framework for understanding the critical role of plants in creating, improving, and sustaining life and address essential plant biology topics such as photosynthesis, plant growth, plant evolution, plant reproduction, plant diversity, plant uses and products, and more.

Middle and high school students can explore these ideas through a series of online labs, each with background information for students and teachers and a Guide for Student Experimentation on which to record the results of the experiment and reflect on their observations. Plant biology resources for elementary learners include activity books such as My Life as a Plant grades PreK—2 and worksheets that bring awareness of the presence of plants in everyday life, such as Do You Speak Plant?

Adventures of the Agronauts is an online science curriculum for elementary students grades 3 and 4 on a space biology theme. The curriculum, which incorporates hands-on experiments and interactive online quizzes in every mission, can be used in the classroom as well as in other settings, such as computer labs and after-school programs. For example, classroom teachers can lead mission activities for whole-group learning, or students can complete mission modules individually at their own pace.

Teachers can also watch the Agronauts Online Tutorial for additional tips on using the curriculum. Jam-packed with videos, photographs, games, facts, polls, and more on all kinds of kid-friendly topics from amazing animals to wacky landmarks, this website has just what you need to inspire young adventurers ages 6—11 to start investigating their world. The United Nations UN Atlas of the Oceans is an internet portal providing scientists, K—college educators, policy makers, and other ocean stakeholders access to continuously updated data on the state of the world's oceans.

To that end, the Atlas presents information in four ocean topic areas—Uses e. The tool serves as both an encyclopedic resource of ocean matters and an online forum for experts in ocean issues. Since , scientists from NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission have been studying the history of water and ice on Mars and exploring the potential for life on the planet. The mission's online Education pages feature facts, lessons, and games to bring Mars discoveries and excitement to K — 12 classrooms.

Why is the Phoenix spacecraft a lander instead of a rover? Environmental literacy helps us navigate complex environmental issues and understand how individual decisions affect the environment locally and globally. The guide covers six topics in managing school garden programs—Why School Gardens? For example, the resources in Teach in the Garden include a database of K—12 garden-based lessons, tips on managing an outdoor classroom, and links to various lists of garden-based books and videos.

It contains hundreds of lesson plans, study guides, teaching strategies, and other resources for preK—12 audiences, grouped by grade level e. The resources address various subjects, including science. In addition, science study guides for middle level learners—e. Hosted by creator Jad Abumrad and NPR science correspondent Robert Krulwich, and most appropriate for high school and adult audiences, the program has produced—and archived—hundreds of hour-long episodes on science and other topics, all of which teach us something about ourselves and humanity through science.

Episode highlights include Weights and Measure, which examines the history and development of these tools and their uses across society; Talking to Humans, which explores what machines can tell us about being human; and Baby Blue Blood Drive, which uses the story of the horseshoe crabs as to help us understand how deeply nature and humans are interconnected. Visit the website to access both current and archived programs. Explore the driving forces of the clean energy movement in this documentary created by James Redford.

Most appropriate for middle level to college audiences, the film provides background knowledge on renewable energy sources and highlights key factors impacting the transition to clean energy, such as technological innovations, sustainability, workforce development, cost savings, and environmental stewardship. The journal features original research, abstracts, and reviews written by middle and high school girls as lead authors.

The submissions address various topics and formats and are reviewed by women in STEM careers prior to publication. The premier issue Spring features two lab experiments, an interview, a historical biography, and original research on topics including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD , bacterial genetic transformations, and more. Visit the website to read the issue and find out how to contribute.

This web page features resources with information to help enrich, inspire, and support an Ocean Guardian School Project--or educators who teach about oceans. Canva's free data visualization templates can help you create graphs design and template that you can personalize in minutes. Maths Chase allows students to quickly test their skill at times tables.

The site features a very simple game that gives students a fun way to learn their times tables. Discover Data Science DDS seeks to educate students about the growing opportunities in the data science field. DDS offers information about data science programs, presented in a simple format.

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  5. The Discovery of Sound in the Sea DOSITS Project introduces the science and uses of underwater sound and provides access to timely, peer-reviewed content on the effects of underwater sound on marine animals. The DOSITS website's front page uses Flash-based interactives that allow users to quickly immerse themselves in content, from the songs of humpback whales to interviews with cutting-edge scientists to the use of acoustics to measure waves.

    Interactives have also been created for the site's galleries, including an extensive Audio Gallery and Scientist Gallery. Glogster is like a poster, only better. Glogs allow you to create an online poster using photographs, images, graphics, video files, and sound files. Glogs allow you to add hyperlinks to other websites. Teachers can use Glogster free of charge on a limited basis. Middle and high school educators can participate in authentic science research and connect students with working scientists through citizen science projects from NASA.

    Read descriptions of the available projects and find out how to participate at the website. View episodes of Universe Unplugged, a video series exploring exoplanets and other astronomical science topics; check out ViewSpace, a collection of web-based interactives and videos highlighting the latest developments in astronomy and Earth science; or catch up on monthly Science Briefings, which showcase recent explorations and discoveries from NASA astrophysics missions. From the multifaceted Planet Stewards Education Project to an Arcade Portal with games and interactives focused on air, ocean, and other themes, the NOS education website has resources to build ocean, coastal, and climate literacy among K—12 students and formal and informal educators.

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    In addition, the site features science learning modules, videos, and publications. For example, The Earth Scientist, an electronic publication, presents vignettes of successful stewardship projects conducted at schools around the country and includes downloadable documents and materials that enable readers to create similar projects. NOAA offers resource collections to encourage K—12 educators and students to learn more about ocean topics such as Gulf oil spills, ocean acidification, ocean currents, ocean floor features, ocean pollution, tides, and tsunamis.

    The collections include data- based resources using actual NOAA data, lesson plans and activities, multimedia resources, background information, and career information relating to each theme. Access the website to read an introductory paragraph about each topic, then click on a title of interest to browse the materials within. At the website, educators can access a guide listing sources documenting the contributions of African-American women in science, technology, medicine, and related disciplines.

    Sources include basic texts, specialized titles, government publications, conference proceedings, dissertations, journals, and other materials. While not an exhaustive list, the guide offers a useful starting point for research. Most appropriate for upper-elementary and middle levels, the trunks enable teachers to incorporate primary sources, objects, and activities into the curriculum without leaving the classroom.

    Browse the list of more than themed kits for loanonline. For example, the Science Discovery Kit from the Lewis and Clark National Historical Park grades 3—5 contains modern scientific equipment, a resource guide, books, posters, and more to help students learn about the natural scientific observations from the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the impacts of the changes that have occurred over the past years. Do you think it would be cool to dig up a piece of history?


    Do you like getting your hands dirty and finding out the story behind things? In this video, targeted for elementary and middle levels, students observe the scientists at work as they explore Best Farm—a piece of Maryland history—and learn what being an archaeologist really entails, from the tools and methods used in the field to insights gleaned from discoveries. Want to bring nature to your classroom? At the website teachers can access links to more than a dozen FWS nature-related resources and curricula in a single location. Annotations describing key features of each resource grade level, resource type, and program focus, for example accompany each link.

    Using these pages, you and your students can experience a range of nature-based activities from creating a unique schoolyard habitat all grades to watching Conservation Connect videos to learn about wildlife species and careers in wildlife management grades 3—7. Access lesson plans and student activity guides that support state and national standards, as well as videos, activity booklets, handouts, and education guides on conservation topics. The website includes resources such as the online guide Freshwater Fish of America all ages ; an activity, Designing Fish-Friendly Culverts and Bridges grades 5—8 ; and information about National Pollinator Week, which takes place June 17—23 all ages.

    These videos from the American Chemical Society address chemical safety in the high school lab. Each video covers topics such as having a safety mindset, understanding a chemical Safety Data Sheet, dressing appropriately for the lab and using personal protective equipment, and preparing for emergencies. One video discusses RAMP e. Watch the lab safety videos online. Each one is approximately seven minutes long. Produced as part of the North American Association for Environmental Education initiative Environmental Issues Forums, which provides teachers and students with tools, training, and support to address difficult issues affecting the environment and communities, this guide for high school educators offers background information on deliberation, information about using the guide in the classroom, and material to help teachers moderate a student forum on the topic.

    It also includes resources for teaching climate change. Teach students about the critical role of insects in the environment and about responsible pest management with the education materials from the Entomological Association website. The site presents entomology-themed lesson plans culled from various university programs and environmental education groups , science fair project ideas, and more to help K—12 educators engage students in science through insects.

    Highlights include resources such as a backyard insect order chart and lesson plan for grade 2 from the University of Illinois, as well as access to online issues of Kansas School Naturalist, a publication produced by Emporia State University that has numerous issues devoted to insects and arthropods, including monarch butterflies, dragonflies, and ants. Players can trace the spread of foodborne illnesses and discover how online databases are used to locate the source of the organisms that cause them. Most appropriate for middle and high school levels, this game from Cornell University researchers takes students through three phases of an outbreak of foodborne illness.

    Stage One addresses the initial identification of the responsible bacterium and declaration of the outbreak; Stage Two determines the particular food responsible for the outbreak; and Stage Three locates the source of the contaminated food. The game concludes with resources to explore careers in food safety. With the simple science experiments in this online guide, you can engage K—8 students in science exploration in just a few minutes!

    Use the experiments as lab demonstrations, icebreakers, station activities, or group projects. The activities address topics in chemistry, life science, physics and engineering, and Earth and space science; titles include Magic Milk, Lava Lamp, Flower Dissection, Make a Whirligig, and Cornstarch Quicksand. The guide features step-by-step instructions for each activity, a materials list, and a What Happened? Free registration is required to download the guide.

    Visit the REcharge Labs website for hands-on activities exploring solar energy with K—12 audiences. Several projects teach engineering design skills in addition to solar energy concepts and basic circuitry. In Solar Rover grades 4—12 , for example, students build a solar rover, then design wheels to explore different environments on imaginary planets or in the backyard. In Solar Fountain grades 2—12 , students build solar-powered water fountains to observe how solar energy is transformed into electricity we can use. In Solar Lifter, students in grades K—6 investigate which light source can lift the most weight.

    This activity offers a tangible way to help students understand the abstract idea that different light sources emit different amounts of energy. In , a group of dedicated high school biology educators in Illinois teamed up to teach themselves how to begin shifting classroom instruction toward three-dimensional learning espoused in the NGSS. Since then, the group has grown in size and scope, and their efforts have resulted in a series of phenomenon-driven storylines, complete with embedded 3-D assessment pieces, that can be used as curriculum for a full high school biology course.

    Six multi-week, phenomenon-based storylines are available: Africa nine weeks , Homeostasis seven weeks , Melanin five weeks , Disease four weeks , Penguin four weeks ; and Canine four weeks. Access the storyline calendars and other supporting materials at the website. Looking for an engaging experience to introduce high school students to engineering design principles and foster teamwork among lab groups?

    The weeklong project—part of a larger unit exploring engineering and teamwork—challenges student groups to design, build, and test a modular building toy to satisfy various consumer requests. Most appropriate for middle and high school levels, the articles can be used to supplement textbook content, generate interest in physics, and help STEM educators and students deepen their physics knowledge. Visit the website to register to receive new footnotes via e-mail. Once subscribed, teachers can access The Best of Physics Footnotes: Volume 1, an electronic compilation of previously published items.

    With versions for elementary, middle, and high school levels, the materials feature activities that teach students about the nature of science and how to critically evaluate science topics to become informed decision makers. Lessons include Meet the Germs elementary , which addresses the differences between bacteria and viruses and the discovery of viruses, and Does Size Matter? Comparing Viruses, Bacteria, and Human Cells middle level , in which students investigate the causes of disease and explore the size of pathogens compared with human immune cells.

    Find these resources and more at the project website. This whimsical, rhyming e-book from the American Society of Landscape Architects about a girl who aspires to be a landscape architect introduces elementary students to a STEM career. The e-book highlights many of the outdoor spaces in a community that are designed by landscape architects, including playgrounds, splash pads, parks, rain gardens, pollinator gardens, and bike paths.

    The book also has a glossary of important terms. A Hang these posters in the classroom to introduce students of all ages to female role models in science, technology, engineering, and math STEM fields. Download the posters, read brief descriptions of the featured scientists, and access recommended readings for both students and adults to learn more about each scientist's work at the website.

    This nonprofit organization aims to improve K—12 education by empowering districts to choose high-quality instructional materials. At the website, teachers and administrators can access comprehensive reports reviews of instructional materials in core subjects, including several middle level science programs. The site also includes articles e.

    In this project developed by education researchers at Michigan State University and North Carolina State University at Greensboro, middle level teachers and students design and implement energy engineering learning units focused on making classrooms more sustainable. The project website has lesson plans and activity sheets to guide students through unit creation using the Engineering for Sustainable Communities process and two design challenges. In these customized units, students solve engineering challenges specific to classroom needs e.

    The site also includes supplementary materials to support unit implementation, such as samples of student work, teaching tips, Next Generation Science Standards NGSS connections, and embedded assessments. Administered by the Wade Institute for Science Education, the website provides a resource for field trips, field studies, and in-school and online programs for classrooms, as well as professional development opportunities for educators. Teachers can search by grade level, region, program type, and content standards for local learning opportunities offered by Massachusetts-based nonprofits and STEM organizations.

    Download the U. Census Bureau's Earth Day Fun Facts to explore data on energy sources and other things that impact our environment. Featuring brief text and simple illustrations, the posters are useful for giving students in grades 4—12 a basic understanding of how fuel cells work. Teach K—6 students about the importance of a healthy diet and daily exercise using Blast Off!

    The game challenges students to fuel a MyPlate spaceship with enough smart food choices and physical activity minutes to fly to Planet Power. Along the way, students read facts about the foods in various food groups and learn the requirements of a healthy diet. Explore geology in national parks with these K—12 lessons developed at NPS sites nationwide. The interdisciplinary lessons address numerous topics and showcase the unique environments of national parks. This series of second, animated videos for students of all ages teaches key concepts about Mars and missions to the Red Planet.

    Are there quakes on Mars? Is Mars really red? Visit the website to watch the videos and read transcripts. Past questions include these: How many rooms does the ISS have? How do astronauts stay clean in space? In addition, the videos often contain information for educators on episode-related learning tools. Suitable for all ages, the short videos highlight all aspects of the ocean realm: exploration and discoveries, ocean health, marine life, and science.

    They also show NOAA staff at work worldwide, on ships or aircraft. Access both libraries from this website. In this short video, Morelli discusses her work and how her childhood passion for animals led to a fulfilling science, technology, engineering, and math STEM career. Share the video with middle and high school students to introduce new STEM careers. Raising native fish in the classroom is a hands-on project adaptable for all ages that connects students to real-world water quality, fish, and wildlife issues, and inspires them to seek solutions.

    In the society of this gifted, noble-minded, and singular man, Kant found so much nourishment for his intellect and his heart, that he became his constant companion, and for many years they daily spent several hours together. Kant went to him every afternoon, found Green sleeping in an armchair, sat down beside him, put aside his thoughts, and fell asleep also. It seemed as though this time, once sacred to his most intimate friendship, he wished to pass in solitude, as a sacrifice to his deceased friend, to the close of his existence.

    In July the professorship of poetry had become vacant, but was not filled up for some time, in spite of numerous applications, owing to the pre-occupation of the ministry with other matters. On this point you are to obtain information, and thereupon to report accurately; in the event of the said Immanuel Kant either not possessing the necessary acquirements for the occupation of this post, or being indisposed to its acceptance, you are required to bestir yourselves, to propose, in due form, other sufficiently qualified persons.

    About the same time, his love for natural science led him to undertake the curatorship of a valuable private museum of natural history, and ethnographical objects. The resulting picture, which must have portrayed Kant at the age of fourty-four, is now hanging on the walls of Messrs. In he received the offer of the vacant chair of logic and metaphysics in the university of Erlangen, a post he seems at first to have been inclined to accept, much to the satisfaction of the students of the university.

    The position was not unremunerative according to the ideas of the time, consisting of florins salary yearly, in addition to a Edition: current; Page: [ xxix ] liberal supply of fuel for the winter, with an immediate advance of gulden for travelling expenses. The project seems to have been pending for some months, but was eventually abandoned.

    The same result attended an offer of the professorate at Jena, made in January Kant had finally determined not to leave his native town, let the allurements be what they might. The time was drawing near when the post which was the goal of his professional hopes was to become once more accessible.

    In the March of the same year the professorship of mathematics, becoming vacant, was offered to Kant. The matter was thus easily adjusted. Buck resigned the chair of logic and metaphysics, while Kant relinquished his claims to that of mathematics. Marcus Herz, who a few days later returned to Berlin.

    Henceforth we have the critical Kant before us. It is too bad that your way of thinking so exactly coincides with your post. Really, my dear Herr Kant, however praiseworthy this may be in itself, it does not seem to me well that you should so deliberately refuse a better position. Kant was inflexible in his resolution to remain true to his native town, by letting it have all the honour and advantages accruing from his genius.

    His special lectures he was now obliged to give up, owing to the pressure of literary work. As time went on, the bulky manuscript originally employed grew smaller and smaller, till at last it dwindled to a piece of note paper, on which were jotted a few memoranda. His delivery is described as much more readily comprehensible, even on subjects in themselves obscure, than the literary style of the later works.

    Kant, when reproached with the clumsiness and obscurity of the latter, used to excuse himself by the reply, that they were only written for professional thinkers; that a special terminology had the advantage of brevity, and that, besides this, he liked to flatter the vanity of the reader now and again with obscurities and misunderstandings to give him the opportunity of exercising his wits upon them; it was otherwise in oral discourse, the object of which was to introduce the hearer to the subject. With him formal logic was a means rather than the end it is with many academical exponents of the subject.

    Edition: current; Page: [ xxxii ] In his philosophical lectures Kant had the habit of following his main idea into side issues, often at such length and in such detail as to be in danger of losing sight of it altogether. His naturally weak voice prevented his being heard at the farther end of the room with distinctness, while the slightest noise rendered him completely inaudible. But the respect, almost amounting to reverence, universally surrounding him, secured a breathless silence the moment he appeared at the lecture-desk, before which he was accustomed to sit while speaking.

    He had a habit, on commencing, of fixing his eye on some individual immediately in front of him, in order to read, by the expression of the face, whether he was being understood. This, sometimes, had unfortunate consequences, as any marked peculiarity in person or in dress, was apt, by involuntarily engrossing his attention, to completely disturb the current of his ideas. Jachmann relates, that on one occasion he entirely lost himself, owing to a missing button on the coat of one of his audience.

    His eye and thoughts were alike irresistibly drawn to this defect. As dean of the university, a post he several times occupied, Kant had the reputation of being a strict examiner, but he never demanded more of students than the state of education in the higher schools admitted of. Jachmann amused Kant in after years, by describing the anxiety of himself and his teachers lest he should fail in passing the ordeal, especially as he had been trained in the antiquated Crusian philosophy.

    But, as Jachmann observes, Kant was too much a philosopher himself, to Edition: current; Page: [ xxxiii ] make any given system of philosophy the basis of examination. The functions involved in the rectorate of the university, which office he filled for the first time in , the year of the death of Frederick II. He expressed a disbelief in hothouse training, and his conviction of the desirability of considerable latitude being permitted for the individual character to expand itself.

    In short, he was, throughout his official career, beloved by the students, whom he treated with an almost paternal tenderness and interest. On an increased grant being made to the university, Kant, of course, received his share in common with the other professors in the shape of an improved stipend.

    But a special and almost unparalleled favour was shown in his case by an addition of thalers from the central state funds. The correspondence between the two men was kept up for many years, and only collapsed finally, owing to the extended medical practice of Herz, absorbing time and energies previously devoted to philosophical studies. Yesterday I remained all day at home, and swallowed the whole thirty sheets at a gulp. But in the end, very few readers will be equal to the scholastic nature of its contents. It increases in interest as you go on, and there are fresh and charming oases, after one has been wading in the sand for a long time.

    Altogether, the work is rich in prospects and leaven to new decoctions whether within or outside the faculty. On the 5th of July I sketched a criticism en gros, but have put it aside, because I do not care to offend the author, he being an old friend, and I might almost say benefactor, seeing that I owe my first post entirely to him; but should my translation of Hume see the light ever, I shall hold no leaf before my mouth, but shall say what I think. Kant has the intention of bringing out a popular abstract of his work.

    Hamann, who, during the publication of the Prolegomena, seems once more to have quarrelled with Kant, exhibited nevertheless considerable interest in its progress, making repeated inquiries of Hartknoch on the subject. He confessed, notwithstanding, that with himself, as with Mendelssohn, your exposition was just as incomprehensible as the text of Spinoza. It is probable that they never came personally into contact, but several letters passed between the two thinkers.

    In he had purchased the house which he retained till death. From this time he regularly invited a few friends to dine with him every day, with the exception of Sunday, when he dined at the house of the English merchant, Motherby. He could not entertain more than six persons at the table, as his dinner-service only accommodated that number. Among the friends invited, one of the most constant was Professor Kraus. Kraus was also a frequent companion of Kant in his daily constitutional walks. Kant often intimated to various members of his acquaintance that he regarded Kraus as one of the greatest intellects the world had ever produced.

    He is quite a unique man. This friendship with Kraus lasted uninterruptedly till the death of Kant, although latterly, for various reasons, the two men saw each other less frequently than at the period of which we are speaking. Hippel, it should be premised, at the time, held the office of Chief Burgomaster, police-director, and inspector of the city prison.

    The testimony of the warder, with which it seems you are chiefly concerned, as to their being a God-fearing folk, you might have, notwithstanding, for he would still be able to hear them, and after all, their tones would only be lowered to the point which the pious burghers of our good town find adequate to their edification, in their own houses. One word to the warder, if you will send for him, and order Edition: current; Page: [ xxxviii ] him to make the above a fixed rule, will suffice to put a stop to this nuisance for once and for all, and remove an annoyance from him, whose peace you have been good enough to promote on more occasions than one, and who will always remain, with the deepest respect, your most obedient servant, I.

    Permit me, in accordance with your good nature, now to bring before you a little matter connected with the University. Herr Jachmann, the elder, has informed me that the stipend he has hitherto enjoyed by your forethought, terminates this next Michaelmas. This act of goodness will always profit a brave, thoughtful, and talented young man: so much I can vouch for. I remain, with respect and affection, yours ever, I.

    We have now reached the period when Kant had become the central figure in the intellectual world of Germany. The Edition: current; Page: [ xxxix ] critical philosophy, now complete, was being taught in every important university throughout every German-speaking country, irrespective of creed. Men of science, no less than philosophers, were attracted to it on all sides. When it is remembered that at the period in question not merely were railroads undreamt of, but even good roads all but unknown in central Europe, the enthusiasm and determination which led to journeys being undertaken involving the expense and fatigue these must have done, will be fully realised.

    Sometimes, it is true, the cost was defrayed by the prince or grand-duke of the State in which some prominent university was situated, but such cases were exceptional. For such an effect to be produced by a philosophic work, written without any regard to style whatever, is a unique fact in the history of culture. A new light had, as Schiller expressed it, been lighted for men.

    The enthusiasm aroused the hatred of opponents. Herder characterised the whole movement as a St.

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    We must not alone be acquainted with the books written from a more or less impartial standpoint, but also with the subjectively coloured pamphlets and letters belonging to the period, to form an adequate idea of the, at present, almost inconceivable commotion. The powerful impression of the Kantian philosophy on all classes in the nation, implied a corresponding influence on every sphere of intellectual activity. Theology, jurisprudence, philology, even natural science and medicine were soon drawn into the movement, quite apart, of course, from the special philosophical disciplines which were subjected to its mighty influence.

    The critical movement, at first confined to Germany, was not long in spreading over Europe. The lecture lasted an hour and a half, and was received with applause, but Nitsch had no sooner concluded than he was forced to commence a disputation, lasting two hours, in the course of which he was required to answer every conceivable objection that could Edition: current; Page: [ xli ] be raised in a running fire of questions. So successfully did he pass through this ordeal, and so much interest did the three introductory lectures evoke, that a sufficiently large number of subscribers was got together to make it worth while for him to undertake a course of thirty-six lectures, at a fee of three guineas each person, expounding in detail the principles of the critical philosophy.

    He concluded them in August. But, meanwhile, the desire for further information had become so great, that a repetition of the lectures was commenced the following October, and a subscription raised for their subsequent publication.

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    It is difficult to conceive that his hearers, accustomed as they were to a treatment of philosophical questions so alien to that of Kant, really comprehended the full bearings of the new system. Richardson admits, in his preface, that he had found the transition from empiricism to critical idealism very difficult, notwithstanding his having had the advantage of a German university education.

    Among the other Latin nationalities, Kant remained little more than a name till some years after his death, and the same may be said of the Slav countries of Eastern Europe. The very recollection, even now, of those happy days brings tears to my eyes. Among the eminent men, not professional philosophers, who, at this time — , were zealous votaries of Kant, foremost stand Schiller, Wilhelm von Humboldt, and Jean Paul Friedrich Richter. The influence of Kant on Goethe was less marked, and probably in the main derived from Schiller. How thoroughly, on the other hand, Schiller was imbued with Kantianism his works and letters testify.

    He proved and sifted the whole of philosophic procedure, in a way that led him to encounter the philosophies of all times and all nations. He carried, in the true sense of the words, philosophy back into the human bosom. Every attribute of the great thinker he possessed in the fullest measure. The plan for a new journal, communicated by you last summer, came duly to hand, also the two first numbers a short time ago.

    The paper contained in the second number on the difference of sex in organic nature, I cannot decipher, although the writer seems a capable man. For instance, the natural Edition: current; Page: [ xlv ] arrangement that all impregnation in both of the organic kingdoms requires two sexes, in order to propagate its kind, is always astonishing, and opens up an abyss of thought for the human reason. I beg you to give Herr Professor Fichte greetings and thanks for the many works from his pen which he has sent me.

    I would have done this myself if the variety of my labours, and the discomforts of old age had not compelled me to postpone it constantly. Kindly give my remembrances also to Herren Schultz and Hufeland. The letter to Fichte which we quote, is, as far as we are aware, the last written by Kant to this philosopher. The reason is, that in this way I see my work published and criticised soonest, for, like a political paper, it satisfies expectation almost Edition: current; Page: [ xlvii ] daily, and I do not know how long it will continue possible for me to work at all.

    Your books, sent in and , have come to hand by Herr Hartung. It is a particular pleasure to me that my ideas on jurisprudence meet with your approval. Pray do not hesitate to further honour me with your letters, if your objection to my delay in answering be not too great, as well as to forward me literary reports. I shall man myself, in future, to be more industrious in this matter, especially as I see by your recent pieces that your excellent talent is developing a vigorous and popular style in exposition, that you have already passed through the thorny paths of Scholasticism, and will not find it necessary to return to them.

    To this Fichte replies, that he does not for a moment contemplate bidding farewell to Scholasticism, but that on the contrary he carries it on with pleasure and facility as it strengthens and raises his powers. The grounds assigned in thy works for continued existence Edition: current; Page: [ xlviii ] are sufficient for me. Hence my flight to thee. For this life I found nothing—absolutely nothing—to replace my lost treasure, for I loved one who in my eyes was everything, so that for him only I lived. He was to me a compensation for all that I lacked, for all else seemed a toy, and all other human beings vapid and empty.

    I have offended this object of my affection by a lie of long standing, which I have only just confessed to him. And yet it contained naught affecting my character, for I have never had a vice to conceal. But the lie alone was enough for him, and his love vanished. He is an honourable man, and therefore he does not deny me friendship and fidelity, but that inmost feeling, which attracted us involuntarily to each other, is no more.

    Oh, my heart will break into a thousand pieces. Now put yourself in my place, and give me consolation or condemnation. It does not help me. My reason forsakes me when I need it most. An answer, I conjure you, or you do not act according to your own Imperative. Borowski states that Kant persistently postponed producing it when asked for by him. We know Maria von Herbert only as a background to Kant, the figurehead of a great intellectual movement. In the midst of all this fame and homage—a fame and homage such as it has been the lot of few men to attain during their lives—trouble was preparing for Kant.

    This was followed a few months later by an edict limiting the freedom of the press. The evils of unrestrained liberty in the expression of opinion were dwelt upon with the emphasis usual to such productions, and all writings ordered to be submitted to special bodies, whose authorisation was to be necessary, prior to publication.

    A committee of obscurantist clergy was thereupon appointed in Berlin for adjudication on works affecting religion. Their attention was soon turned to the founder of the critical philosophy, but the victim was so well intrenched in the favour of public opinion, that more than ordinary circumspection Edition: current; Page: [ l ] had to be employed in the attack. This flank movement seems, for the time at least, to have come to nothing.

    But the course of events assisted the obscurantists. With the progress of the French revolution the portentous charge of Jacobinism came every day more conveniently to hand as a weapon for branding all aspirations after freedom, whether social, political, or religious, till, with the general armament of , the full tide of the reaction destined, in its political aspect, to culminate in the infamous Holy Alliance, set in. All who refused to anathematise every person and thing having any connection near or remote with the great convulsion became an object of suspicion, and of governmental if not social ostracism.

    On September 14, , an ordinance was promulgated, that all teachers, in the universities and higher seminaries, no less than the lower schools, should pledge themselves to adhere in their instruction to the letter of the orthodox creed. The authorities at Berlin, with characteristic stupidity, instead of seeing in these the natural development of principles contained in the system from the beginning, thought they detected a deliberately planned attempt, on the part of a thinker of pre-eminent influence, to undermine the status quo.

    In the preface to this work Kant takes the opportunity of defining his views on the relations of the two faculties of philosophy and theology, and of protesting against the intrusion of a theological censorship in works written from a philosophic standpoint, and for philosophers. But the reactionaries at Berlin were inexorable. Nettled by the fact that the work last-mentioned reached a second edition by Easter, , they at once set about the consideration of means for more effectually silencing the voice of the intellectual Titan.

    Their deliberations resulted in the issue of an Order in Council, dated the 1st of October, , which, after charging Kant with undermining and defaming the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, forbade him, under pain of royal displeasure, from further expounding his views either by lecturing or writing. This order was communicated directly to Kant in person. He refrained from mentioning the circumstance even to his intimate friends, but replied, pledging himself to abstain from publicly expressing his views on any question affecting religion or theology.

    Although all that one says must be true, one is not bound to express every truth publicly. From this time he went little into society, and the following year gave up all his lectures with the exception of those on logic and metaphysics, which were reduced to one hour daily. In the two latter works were published, and almost immediately after, for the first time, unmistakable and serious signs of decay manifested themselves in the form of an alarming illness, from which he but slowly recovered. His ministry retiring immediately after, the oppressive press regulations were rescinded.

    Several pupils at once expressed their willingness to do their best; but Kant, averse to delegate the work to others, waited in the hope that a little rest would enable him personally to complete the task to his satisfaction. Meanwhile, twilight, forerunner of the eternal darkness soon to come, was gathering apace around the mighty intellect. Yet, even now, in his growing weakness, schemes of a great philosophical undertaking floated before the mind of Kant.

    He worked on it every day as long as his strength permitted till the year before his death. He said it was to be his opus maximum. It is described as intrinsically worthless, mostly consisting of repetitions of previous ideas, interspersed with passages of which it is impossible to make any sense. In the year his memory failed him with remarkable suddenness.

    He was unable to recall the most familiar names of persons and places. Before long he could not converse connectedly, owing to the same cause. But though the commonest words and idioms forsook him in speaking, it was with a reluctance amounting frequently to irritability that he permitted assistance from any one. Kant never deceived himself as to his weakness and approaching death.

    He gave up his old plan of rising at five in the morning and retiring at ten at night. At first he derived benefit from the prolonged rest, but this was but Edition: current; Page: [ lv ] temporary. He soon found a difficulty in walking or standing, and had many falls, though none of a serious nature.

    On such occasions he used to joke, saying that the lightness of his body prevented disastrous results. In spite of the measured and careful way in which he was accustomed to plant his foot on the ground, he had one fall in the street, when two young ladies who were passing assisted him home and received as a souvenir the rose he was carrying in his hand.

    From this time forth he never again ventured outside the house alone. Even reading, his chief occupation, was becoming irksome to him, and for the first time in his life he acquired the habit of falling asleep in his chair. His woollen cap, coming in contact with the light on the table at his elbow, caught fire on one of these occasions. In January , Kant had felt himself obliged to make a change in the personnel of his household.

    He had to dismiss his old attendant Lampe. This worthy, owing to his connection with Kant, has obtained sufficient notoriety to warrant his detaining our attention for a moment. His behaviour at the first was such as to lead Kant to entertain a high opinion of him, and show him considerable liberality in various ways.

    This conduct, however, soon changed. This altered demeanour in the course of time decided Kant to get rid of the man. But the matter seems to have been pending some years. At his advanced age Kant was naturally averse to changes of a domestic nature, particularly as he conceived he might find a difficulty in getting well suited.

    The result was that the affair went on till January , when Kant one morning confronted Wasianski with the announcement that Lampe had behaved to him in a way he was ashamed to repeat, and that he must dismiss him without further delay. So strong was his feeling on this point that he Edition: current; Page: [ lvii ] subsequently adopted the practice of calling him by his Christian name, Johannes. In the spring of the year Kant awaited with impatience the arrival of a linnet which was accustomed to sing on the windowsill of his study.

    He was a great lover of birds, and used regularly to feed the sparrows that built their nests under the eaves of the house. As the season advanced, Wasianski persuaded him to take some drives, to which he consented with some reluctance. The usual concomitant of greatness attended him on these occasions. Crowds assembled to see him come out, as soon as the carriage drove up to the door; and as long as he remained within the precincts of the town it was difficult to evade the eager curiosity of sightseers.

    As the winter drew near, he complained much of flatulence—a malady nothing seemed effectually to relieve. His indisposition to food also increased. The winter proved a trying one for him. He expressed himself as tired of life. He could be of no use in the world any longer, he said, and was at a loss to know what to do with himself. Strange as it may seem, the desire for travel seized him now for the first time, and the notion of gratifying it the following summer was his only consolation.

    Towards the end of the winter he began to be distressed by bad dreams, as well as by the painfully continuous iteration in his mind of snatches of popular melodies, and the school-boy rhymes of his childhood. Not until June did Wasianski venture to take Kant into the country. No sooner had Kant entered the carriage than he expressed the wish that the journey might be a long one, but they had scarcely reached the city gate before he was wearied and asked to return.

    The drive was persevered in, notwithstanding, and Kant felt the benefit in the form of increased sleep and a generally quieter night. About eight drives of a similar kind were taken during this summer of He would now frequently sit abstractedly during and after meals the times he was formerly wont to devote to social intercourse without saying a word. He only roused if the conversation turned on some philosophical or scientific question; on any other subject he seemed unable to collect his thoughts. Wasianski used commonly to divert his attention from his ailments by propounding some problem in physics or chemistry.

    Immediately Kant entered the room he seized both his hands and covered them with kisses. The next day the young man again called and begged a memento. The enthusiast, on Edition: current; Page: [ lix ] receiving the souvenir and kissing it reverentially, took off his coat and waistcoat and handed them together with a thaler to the servant. The crisis was brought on by a severe attack of indigestion, consequent on too much indulgence in English cheese, a diet of which Kant became inordinately fond during the last years of his life, to the exclusion of all taste for other food.

    From this time forward it was plain that the end was approaching. Though Wasianski with great difficulty persuaded him to give up the cheese, he became more and more averse to food of all kinds, while his mental and physical powers were palpably ebbing away fast.

    I asked him whether he knew me? He could not answer, but raised his face to me for a kiss. I was deeply moved at this, and again he motioned me with his pale lips. I am not aware that he ever offered one of his friends a kiss, at least I have never seen him kiss any of them, and I never before received a kiss from him myself, until a few months before his death, when he kissed me and his sister.

    But he seemed then as not knowing what he did in his weakness. Taking all the circumstances into consideration, I am tempted to consider this last offer as a real symbol of the friendship so soon to be ended in death. This kiss was also the last sign that he knew me. The medicine handed to him was swallowed now with difficulty, and with a Edition: current; Page: [ lx ] noise, such as is frequent with the dying.

    All the symptoms of approaching death were present. It was a solemn scene—the death-bed of the great man. I remained the last night by his bed. He did not sleep, his state was more one of stupor. I concluded he was thirsty, and passed him a sweetened mixture of wine and water. He moved his mouth to the glass, and as it could not retain the liquid through weakness, he held it with his hand till, with considerable difficulty, it was swallowed. Several times he thrust aside the eider-down bed-covering. The whole body and the extremities were already cold; the pulse intermitted.

    At a quarter to four on the morning of the 12th he laid himself flat on his back, and gave his body a regular position as it were in preparation of his approaching death , which he maintained till the end. The pulse was perceptible neither in the hands, the feet, or the throat. I tested every part where a pulse beats, and found that only in the left hip was there one remaining, which was beating heavily, but not continuously. In order to view him well, and to observe the pulse in the hip, I kneeled by his bedside, for the bent position of his head owing to old age , prevented my seeing his face in a standing position.

    I called his servant to be witness of the death of his good master. The moment had come in which the functions of Edition: current; Page: [ lxi ] life ceased. Just now his esteemed friend Herr R. We also note the interesting phase delay between the F Although, the physical process leading to this delayed response is unclear. The applied method makes use of the recent progress in field of meteor physics and understanding of the MLT dynamics. The derived trend of a decreasing density of 5.

    Further, we determined a solar cycle effect on the MLT density of the order of 2. Our results show that the MLT region seems to be affected by greenhouse gas cooling as well as by the solar activity. The estimated density trend is in reasonable agreement with temperature trends in the MLT region derived from OH emission and meteor radar observations. The Editor thanks Juha Vierinen and an anonymous reviewer for their assistance in evaluating this paper.

    Volume 41 , Issue If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Open access.

    Ali Yavar Jung

    Geophysical Research Letters Volume 41, Issue Research Letter Free Access. Stober, E-mail address: stober iap-kborn. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.

    Parameter Value Location Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. This graph shows a histogram of the mean diurnal count rate from to The blue lines indicate the seasonal variability. The black line shows the total operation time of the CMOR radar for each hour. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Time series of relative density normalized to the mean density at the mean altitude of the time series.

    The lines represent seasonal fits using just the first two subharmonics of the year. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. The cyan line shows the trend taken from Akmaev et al. Akmaev, R. Citing Literature. Volume 41 , Issue 19 16 October Pages Figures References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.