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With grown-up kids and a husband always on the road, Katharine Murray's nest would be empty if it weren't for her Aunt Lucy--until the elderly woman dies. Now Katharine Somehow mystery and warder have a. When planning her vacation, Georgia magistrate MacLare Yarbrough envisioned a tropical isle where she and h husband would be concerned with nothing but sunbathing, It's a high-stakes game for Hopemore, Georgia, county magistrate MacLaren Yarbrough when she investigates the murder of a bridge maven State bridge champion Edith Whelan Burkett has been dealt a string of bad hands. Not only did her husband comm Hopemore, Georgia, county magistrate MacLaren Yarbrough is experiencing some of the weirdest weeks of her life, weighing the cons and more cons of a strange animal in her yard, the return of an old boyfriend, and of course, murder Folks in Hop MacLaren Yarbrough has her plate full -- in addition to having a lively extended family, she's county magistrate and co-owner of the local plant nursery.

But amateur sleuthing may be her true calling Years ago, a dark cloud moved over the smal Sixty-something Southerner MacLaren Yarbrough keeps busy as a county magistrate, a co-owner of Yarbrough's Feed, Seed and Nursery, and a loving wife and mother. But her penchant for snooping around in other people's business often lands her up to her Whether handling customer calls at Yarbrough's Feed, Seed and Nursery or close calls while solving crimes, sixty-something Southerner Maclaren Yarbrough knows how to charm her way through anything Judge MacLaren Yarbrough is the new magistrate I stroked the satin wood in delight and confusion.

Why should Uncle Stephen send it to me? The Remember Box was Aunt Kate's private place, the one we were sternly forbidden to open. Suddenly I was reluctant, even fearful -- a modern Pandora, about to When a popular youth pastor is accused of a grisly crime, MacLaren Yarbrough won't rest until she finds the truth.

Her gut instinct tells her Luke Blessed is innocent. Still, how could the dream he had on the night a young woman was murdered depict t A teenage girl has been missing from her Montgomery, Alabama, home for six weeks. She may be a runaway, a crime victim, or both. What's amazing is other people's lack of concern. Just one person cares that she's gone: a spunky amateur sleuth on the s Unfortunately, at elegant Daph As amateur sleuth Sheila Travis joins her fami But behind the tennis dates The small Georgia town does little more than straggle along th He also reported that Samuel Burns, an exceptional tutor in Charleston, had retired with a fortune.

What did these salaries mean to tutors? Paid a few hundred dollars plus room and board, she made enough money to help her widowed mother in Massachusetts. She married Dr. In , David Rice, a Pennsylvania-born sugar and cotton planter in St. Charles Dabney of Mississippi complained that his generally able tutor did not prepare him well enough to enter William and Mary. The well-recommended woman he hired to tutor his daughter proved deficient in scholarship and manners.

After graduating from the College of Charleston, John Girardeau, the Presbyterian theologian, tutored for Thomas Hamilton and married his daughter Penelope. Enoch Hanford of Connecticut, a Yale graduate, who became a professor of languages at South Carolina College and a prominent lawyer, married one of the children he had tutored for William DeWitt of Society Hill.

McCurdy, who welcomed him and his wife into the family circle. Some Yankee women went south to marry a rich planter, arousing no special resentment unless they proved indifferent teachers. And that sometimes led to unpleasantness. Tutors in eighteenth-century Virginia had considerable latitude to punish lazy pupils, although trouble might ensue when one parent proved softer than the other. In , W. He lost the case. What would people of the North think of such conduct at the table?!

All went well for a competent and pious tutor. Yet, although tutors and governesses might feel accepted into the family circle, they soon learned that if the host family squabbled internally or with neighbors, one side or the other ostracized them. Sarah Morgan of Baton Rouge, caught in the maelstrom of the War, wondered if she would have to become a teacher or governess. I think of the nameless, numberless insults and trials she is forced to submit to; of the hopeless, thankless task that is imposed on her, to which she is expected to submit with out a murmur; of all the griefs and agony shut up in her heart — and I cry Heaven help a governess!

At certain times, agricultural labor became scarce; at other times labor redundancy exposed disguised unemployment. Planters diversified production in part to keep slaves busy and out of mischief. Seasonal variations in cash crops sometimes compelled the hiring of free labor, generally white.

Financially embarrassed women slaveholders rented out slaves at a return above that projected if they labored at home. Louisiana sugar plantations hired white and black day laborers, and local contractors recruited skilled laborers in New Orleans and nearby towns. The Presbyterian Reverend Robert J. Breckenridge, denouncing the movement to expel free blacks from Maryland, maintained that nonslaveholders faced ruin without access to free black laborers. By the War, wheat growers in Maryland, especially on the Eastern Shore, depended heavily on free black labor at harvest time.

Attempts to expel free blacks met stiff resistance from whites in the countryside who needed their labor. Jefferson hired a good many laborers. Although most did field work, skilled workmen taught slaves trades. Into the nineteenth century, hired white laborers built homes. One year Charles L. Pettigrew of North Carolina hired nearly a hundred men. His neighbor Josiah Collins III, who hired large numbers of white laborers, insisted on treating poor men with the same respect as rich.

Benton Miller of Washington County, Georgia, having to supplement the labor of his three slaves, hired a white worker who performed less well than the slaves. Calhoun told the U. Let no man be ashamed of a hard hand or a sunburnt face. Often, sons of small farmers did odd jobs to supplement family income, but native agricultural workers had as bad a reputation as foreigners did for dissolute behavior, unsteady work habits, and troublemaking.

Yet planters and even farmers who needed hired hands to set up a place or during a harvest, often turned to native whites for field work. Irish immigrants worked on public projects and did plantation ditch digging and other work deemed too dangerous for slaves. Harry St. I asked him if Syria was not one of the Apostles; he after meditating a moment very knowingly said yes.

I enjoy a good laugh, and he kept my sides literally shaking the whole time. Some were jacks-of-all-trades. The Massenburg plantation of thirty to forty slaves in North Carolina hired whites for a few days at a time to make a roof for the barn, shoes for slaves, and chimneys for slave cabins. Richard Greenlee of North Carolina did business with three local brothers who harvested the potato crop, sold him apples, and rented land. Although planters increasingly bought northern shoes and clothing for slaves, many still found it easier or cheaper to hire a local shoemaker, seamstress, or weaver.

Thus, slaveholders sometimes hired men of questionable talent, primarily to support struggling neighbors. Here and there, planters followed the example set by Charles Pettigrew of North Carolina at the turn of the nineteenth century or by his son, Ebenezer, fifty years later.

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Charles Pettigrew seems to have earned the gratitude of laborers and artisans for his conscientious efforts to provide as much work as possible and to treat them decently. Confronted by noblesse oblige, workers do not always think what others assume they think. Neither Pettigrew encouraged social intimacy or feelings of equality in workers. Occasionally, small slaveholders hired hands for long periods and made them feel part of the household. Then too, churchgoing brought masters and hired hands closer. Slaveholders, big and small, engaged in banter with white workmen or rebuked them sharply but expected blunt retorts.

The reception accorded them varied with the extent to which poor whites were kin to the rich. John Walker of Virginia hired white workers from neighboring families, paying in cash, bacon, and grain. In the central Piedmont of North Carolina landless whites accounted for 30 to 40 percent of free white households. Some were well-off artisans, but most were poor. By tenancy had become a way of life for thousands, some of whom owned livestock and were not poor by local standards. In Arkansas Overseers and Their Families 51 and Louisiana, a large if underdetermined number of landless farmers worked as tenants, sharecroppers, and day laborers, who did not always do worse than struggling small farmers.

Tenancy embraced at least 20 percent of a rural white population that lived under the threat of proletarianization. By , social critics in South Carolina declared the landless widespread and growing. Tenancy offered a way station to property ownership, but the reverse was also the case. Relations between planters and well-off tenants remain beclouded. On Louisiana sugar plantations a number boarded with the overseer and an occasional skilled worker with the planter. Generally, they did not feel put-upon by aristocratic airs. John H. Caroline Couper Lovell of Georgia visited the cabins of tenants, who received her graciously but never returned visits.

Proud people did not presume on others of higher status, and they asked for aid only in extreme circumstances. Calhoun told John Quincy Adams that families in South Carolina hired white farm laborers but not women domestics, at least not if the family valued its reputation. A twentieth-century survey of Tennessee Confederate war veterans suggests that no more than 5 percent of wives of poor men worked for planters and well-off yeomen.

Some poor farm women, working in their own homes, spun regularly or did other work for planters. In rare circumstances, white women lived with employers, but not as household members. In , James Barbour, in his presidential address to the Agricultural Society of Albemarle, Virginia, deplored the prejudice against overseers and boasted of paying well for the best possible management of slaves and crops.

Pollok Burguyn of Ravenswood, North Carolina, dismissed the portrait of poorly paid overseers, arguing that, fed and housed by planters, they could save most of their wages. Still, J. Flournoy of Georgia invoked Xenophon to stress the need to have overseers as devoted to the estate as the owner himself. The Southern Planter of Richmond thought no men more knowledgeable about 52 Strangers within the Gates plantation management than overseers.

Despite repeated attempts at reform, the overseer system and the status of overseers changed little. Slaves seized the opportunity. They undermined countless overseers by appealing over their heads, implicitly asserting their prescribed status as householders, in contradistinction to strangers. Masters listened to slaves against overseers and against planters to whom they hired their slaves out. William Massie of Virginia privately described his overseer as a brute, as inhuman, yet recommended him as first-rate.

Brent of Virginia and Calvin H. John Archibald Campbell of Alabama doubtless agreed, but, as a veteran jurist, he fell back on the advice of the ancient Romans to keep overseers in full view lest they abuse slaves. Class attitudes had an impact on legal as well as social relations. Justice varied according to local circumstances, notably, the relations of planters to the less affluent in time and place. John Randolph dismissed his overseer for scandalous behavior but did not take him to court.

Two gentlemen warned that no matter the evidence, juries sided with the poorer men. The governor explained that the murder occurred without intent in a chance incident. In North Carolina, an overseer killed a master who treated lower-class whites with contempt; he expected acquittal on grounds of self-defense.

The principal exception consisted of sons of prosperous small slaveholders who worked as overseers in order to learn plantation management. As scions of slaveholding families, they became intimates of the master and might marry into his family. The whole, low, thieving tribe of overseers should be done away, and a competent set of factors put in their place.

Union troops did not separate the threads of these complex relations. Susan R. Jervey of Middle St. They distributed her property to the freedmen, leaving her nothing except some clothes. Hugh Davis of Alabama had his overseers to table, if bachelors, but they may not have enjoyed it. They did not expect to be introduced to the guests but were expected to amuse themselves watching the crowd.

He would soon sigh for the fields, and less polished but more suitable companions. I dined with Mr. Barrow last year on Christmas we then had a magnificent dinner and in candor I think I enjoyed my dinner today Much Better than last Christmas. He judged anyone who bullied inferiors and fawned over superiors as arrogant, tyrannical, and servile. For Robert E. A true man of honor feels humbled himself when he cannot help humbling others. I told him that he drank too much and swore too much. When Jesse Bellflower, R. Allston remembered Bellflower and another overseer in his will despite having always maintained social distance from these piney woods men.

Overseers may have resented planters but hoped to own slaves. Their typical salaries of three to four hundred dollars per year made the ascent difficult but not impossible. Yet they carried heavy managerial responsibilities, worked a longer although physically less strenuous day than the slaves, and hardly ever had a day off.

Saving to buy land and Overseers and Their Families 55 slaves took self-discipline and luck. A minority of overseers owned one or two slaves whom they hired out or kept as house servants. Archeological evidence from the low country and Sea Islands reinforces literary sources: Overseers usually subsisted on a diet not much different from that of the better-treated slaves.

Like slaves, they ate raccoon and opossum. Like favored slaves, they had chipped china handed down by planters. Edward Blunt, an overseer, bought Lucretia Heyward and her mother. He poor white trash but he daid now. He hab heself to look out for, enty? He wuk, he sabe he money for buy slabe and land. From colonial times, a woman who married an overseer put her reputation at risk. In , William Byrd denounced such a match as a gross breach of class etiquette and virtually an act of prostitution. Then and later, although planter families tried to prevent such marriages, quarrels broke out between horrified relatives and relatives moved by the pleas of a young woman in love.

They finally relented, acknowledged him as a good husband, and provided for them in their will. Once married, a bride faced a lifetime of difficulty. I wonder why she married him. She does not look like a contented woman. In the s, John Harrower, a Scots tutor in Virginia, noticed that some overseers hesitated to marry, lest a wife and children bind them to an unsatisfactory position.

Some advertisements insisted that an overseer be a bachelor. Garland D. Harmon, probably the most renowned overseer in the South, married Emily Edge in , but we know little about her or their children. But planters fled to the up country or elsewhere to avoid expected epidemics, whereas overseers and their families had to brave the climate with the slaves.

The Reverend Mr. Only occasionally did a planter provide overseers with a home in a more hospitable locale in easy ride of the plantation. William Byrd described his overseer as henpecked. Ella Tazewell thought well of her overseer but condemned his wife as unprincipled and disloyal to the Confederacy. Philips of Mississippi. Lucy Skipwith wrote to her master, John H. Cocke of Virginia, that the people liked William Lawrence, the overseer, but despised Mrs. Lawrence, who took snuff and laudanum and turned her children into little ogres, alternating whippings with excessive forbearance.

Cocke himself called Mrs.

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Skipwith urged Cocke to fire Lawrence despite his personal popularity. He did. Cross for pretending to have been taking care of his sick wife when the slaves got out of control. Cross did. But if not as she ought to be, she will soon set everything wrong. The Reverend M. Episcopal Bishop William H. Some wives won admiration as pious women who led their husbands to Christ.

Huger Smith remembered the wife of Mr. Some served in plantation hospitals or did odd jobs. Both parties understood kindness and generosity as the condescension appropriate to a matron—client relation.

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Let the overseer or his wife or children get sick, and a good plantation mistress responded as quickly as she did for her slaves. Martha Ogle Forman of Maryland stayed up all night with a dying overseer, comforting his wife and four small children. The visits paid by young masters and mistresses to the families of overseers were especially patronizing. John Randolph of Roanoke, returning to his plantation, fired an overseer who had sired two mulatto children. The overseer died shortly thereafter, and Randolph offered condolences to his wife, expressing compassion for her long suffering.

To reduce the incidence of sexual relations between overseers and slaves, some masters preferred to hire married men. The tactic seems to have worked on balance but did not prevent sexual misbehavior by married overseers. Evidence of liaisons, usually with single overseers, appeared from time to time. Single men could afford to be less discreet than married.

James Williams, a former driver in Alabama, reported an unmarried alcoholic overseer whose colored mistress bore him three children. Planters tried — with mixed results — to prevent overseers from sexually abusing slave women. Planters and their sons fell silent about their own sexual abuses but fumed when overseers raped, coerced, or seduced slave women.

The wonder is that many planters looked the other way when overseers strayed, for they constantly warned each other that sexual transgressions threatened big trouble in the quarters. Overseers who beat slave women into submission risked indignation and dismissal but not prosecution. Besides the immorality of it there are evils too numerous to be mentioned.

Instead of studying or thinking about women in bed or out of bed, a man should think about what he has to do tomorrow — or for a week ahead, or for a month or year. How to take advantage of this piece of work, or that little job — In fact such intercourse is out of the question — it must not be tolerated. An efficient overseer was hard to find, and planters tried not to notice violations that caused no trouble in the quarters.

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When mulatto children turned up on plantations, overseers rivaled local poor whites as prime suspects. Former slaves provided much testimony against them in later years. When an overseer died, his wife looked to generous planters to help her and the children. Yet their pleas usually suggested unpaid — and unproven — bills due their husbands, rather than a demand for charity.

Planters responded in the spirit of alms for the deserving poor rather than as a duty toward a poor household member. In North Carolina in , Charles Manigault took pity on the wife of his deceased overseer and tried to tide her over. To his chagrin, she complained bitterly about money supposedly owed her husband. After marrying another overseer who wanted to work for Manigault, she tried to get back into his good graces.

Manigault, having no place for her husband, found him a job elsewhere. Despite a paternalistic gloss, the strained social relations of slaveholders and employees did not much resemble the basic relation of master and slave. It is difficult to envision a slaveholding society, in contradistinction to a society that permitted slavery, in which formally free workers escaped the condescension and contempt usually associated with personal dependence.

Some of the clearest expressions came from Virginia. Nathaniel Beverley Tucker, a political and constitutional scholar, maintained that slaves naturally learned to love their masters through everyday intimacy. Mary J. Windle of Delaware easily assumed that slaves loved and idolized their mistresses, much as Sarah Mytton Maury of England — a high church Anglican who esteemed John C. The Egyptian elite — slaveholders, landowners, and officials — answered to Pharaoh if they oppressed dependents. They defended themselves by claiming that they cared for their people, who loved them for it.

Thomas R. Masterful Forbearance A high-spirited people, Southerners astonished Yankees and foreigners by their forbearance. But no matter, I forgive you. It explained that a slave should be expected to engage in small-scale pilfering. A decade later, the Methodist Reverend James O. Pinckney of South Carolina to insist that rice planters, despite feeding their slaves well, lost a quarter of their crop to theft. Eliza Ann Marsh of Louisiana said matter-of-factly that she had spent the morning baking cakes, most of which the slaves promptly stole. Masters whipped slaves for stealing substantial amounts or if they caught perpetrators red-handed and had to uphold their authority.

Masters expected slaves to steal, whether well-fed or not, and they knew better than to whip for every little thing. They wrote off most thefts as part of the overhead cost of maintaining order. Victoria Welby-Gregory, a twelve-year-old English aristocrat, twisted the knife: She was surprised to find that northern hotels told guests to lock their doors and place valuables in the hotel safe, lest they be robbed by blacks. Welby-Gregory noticed no blacks in those northern hotels, and amused southern ladies reported that at home they trusted their slaves with everything.

Merrick had no uninterrupted rest, saw any slave who called on her, and cared for the sick. I too shall be free at last. All agreed to keep quiet, lest she be hanged. Some planters, reluctant to sell a rebellious spirit, lived to regret their decision. Senator Willie P. She thought that patience with house servants made slaveholders more tolerant of ignorant field hands. Both house and field slaves demanded attention, constantly interrupting a mistress who was giving her children spelling lessons.

Martineau suffered abuse for her antislavery accounts of the South, but earned plaudits from Frederick A. For the Presbyterian Reverend Masterful Forbearance 63 Rufus William Bailey of South Carolina, not only did Southerners rank as the best of masters and Yankees and free people of color the worst, but the slaves knew as much. When slaves had a voice in their sale, they usually preferred a Southerner.

David Christy of Cincinnati, an agent for the American Colonization Society, berated Northerners for emancipating their slaves only to condemn them to misery in a hostile society. Christy thought Southerners much kinder and friendlier to blacks. John S. Gee of Virginia, who had served as a Christian missionary to the poor of New York City, owned a tobacco plantation of about sixty-five slaves.

Gee and Olmsted did not have ten consecutive uninterrupted minutes. That I may never treat anyone with contempt. For if I treat others with contempt, how will my Father in Heaven treat me? Thou knowest the infirmities I have to contend with but thy grace is sufficient. Even the clerks in the stores are too well bred to be in a hurry, whatever their customers may be. Here, a slave pleaded with her mistress to fix her dress. There, the whole slave force cajoled master for a holiday. Elsewhere, masters and mistresses spent an evening without help so that house servants could go to some social event.

Amelia Murray, an Englishwoman, met six black slaves on their way to the theater. In England, three white servants would go one night and the other Masterful Forbearance 65 three the next. Not so in New Orleans. The vast majority of slaves probably laughed at the notion that they received such indulgences. But a great many masters and mistresses took pains with one or more favorites, priding themselves on their generosity and attention to duty, and expecting boundless gratitude.

One way or the other, they endured a constant drain on their time and energy. Even indifferent masters and mistresses had to attend to the medical needs of their human investments. Eliza Magruder of Mississippi made at least three trips to the quarters in one day to attend to the sick. Thomas Linthicum, his wife, and their children held a constant vigil to try to save a dying slave. Beyond pecuniary considerations, sick slaves caused considerable inconvenience to those constantly on call. Masters and mistresses, attending to the sick, frustrated their children and visitors, who expected attention.

In early eighteenth-century Virginia, William Byrd beat Anaka for various offenses but did not burden her and the other house servants by receiving guests on Sunday. To the end of the slave regime, considerate mistresses had cooks prepare meals on Saturday to be eaten cold on Sunday or dined early to give the house staff the rest of Sunday off. Edmund Ruffin — planter, prominent soil scientist, and secessionist firebrand — visited Governor Letcher of Virginia, to be greeted by Mrs.

McTyeire of Tennessee appealed for greater consideration for cooks and carriage drivers who needed rest and time to attend religious services.

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He was appalled to see carriage drivers outside church, caring for horses, while their masters attended services. Still, some masters and mistresses walked to church or made special arrangements to allow coachmen to attend their own churches. The same could not usually be said for masters and mistresses, who had the sick to look after. Sheppard of Louisiana wrote to Abraham Sheppard, Jr.

Justice Ebenezer Starnes of the Supreme Court of Georgia believed that the slave who produced a profit for his master ought to have the benefit of counsel as well as succor. But oh, how some planters whined. If she would only confine herself to destroying the stone china I could bear it better, but she always breaks my french china.

On a trip to New Orleans in , B. My own is getting sore, it is the same with those of my neighbors, in church and state. Colonel Wood of Kentucky told Henry Yates Thompson of England that he wanted to give up slavery because of its low returns. Thompson reacted skeptically, until others insisted that Colonel Wood was the greatest slave on his plantation.

Wilkerson belong to me. We also belong to them. Variations from Georgia: In the s, the celebrated British geologist Charles Lyell asked a black woman whether she belonged to a family of his acquaintance. Nathaniel Beverley Tucker saw slaves choose to remain rather than be 68 Loyal and Loving Slaves sent to live with spouses. Cora Mitchel of Florida recalled her Connecticut-born father as an antislavery merchant who bought several slaves at their request to prevent their being sold away from their homes.

Above all teach him to be honest in word and deed. Take care of him. If need be die for him. A slave saved the lives of white family members under attack by a deranged slave. Slaves deeply moved Eliza Pinckney when they traveled thirty or forty miles to attend the funeral of her husband, their master. Roswell King, Jr. Henry F. Pyle told of his stepfather, a slave who had run off to a black federal regiment during the War and returned to work for the Republican Party.

Even hard-driving lowcountry planters told themselves that they cared for their slaves much better than capitalists cared for their workers. They especially reveled in stories — true so far as they went — of affection for favorites who directly touched their lives. Flournoy, Jr. Tell them if I live to get home, I will bring home five boxes of the best tobacco for them. Few men so honest and faithful are to be found in these trying times.

Genuine ties of affection did exist between some slaves and slaveholders, who extrapolated an imaginary love affair with all their slaves. After the War, an embittered John S. Countless blacks doubtless mixed laughter with indignation. But the worst part of this apparent charade is that it was not a charade. Ownership of slaves trapped even halfway responsible masters and mistresses in constant demands on time and energy. Yes, the slaveholders, having brought it on themselves, did not qualify as candidates for martyrdom.

Whether they inherited or bought slaves, they assumed responsibility for human beings who did not consent. They profited economically from slave labor and emotionally from the subjugation of others to their will. Yet the burdens they assumed wore them down in ways more easily felt than fathomed. Slaveholders took their slaves for granted as dependents, but some recognized that they depended on those dependents in matters physical and spiritual.

Mistresses had only to take care of themselves to acknowledge that their comfort — and sanity — required performances by the slaves whose efficiency they often denigrated. All would go well if Cora, her recently ill cook, held up. If not, Miss Harriet planned to get sick herself. Magoon, a popular northern contributor to southern literary journals, observed that Randolph shook hands with his slaves but not with plebeian whites.

Wilson with joy; old and young of both sexes came to the landing place to welcome his approach. Sarah Rootes Jackson reported that the ladies went down to the quarters to give Old Aunt Sarah a pair of stockings and a hemmed handkerchief. Often black women reciprocated with garden produce. From numerous everyday incidents the ladies found evidence that their slaves loved them as much as they loved their slaves. Burwell of Virginia, her mother, and her sister were received like princesses when they visited slave cabins.

The slaves of Dolly Lunt Burge and Cornelia Jones Pond poured out affection when mistresses and masters returned home. Or did the disillusionment and disappointment and defeat harden attitudes long manifest in softer form? Probably, some of both. Our burden of work and responsibility was simply staggering. His wife, Eliza, who considered slaves a great nuisance, would not hear of selling them.

I love my family, and they love me. It is my only earthly tie. It embraces my slaves, and there to me the world ends.

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Slaves recalled their chores less cheerfully. An enraptured Mrs. In them, when faithful, you meet with true affection. Indeed we sometimes find them more sincere than near relatives. WELL — she at least shall have to say, that one poor slave hath found a friend.

Waddell, his confidant, had no greater friends than his faithful servants. Self-respect and self-love impelled slaveholders to believe that their slaves loved them, but then, so did consciousness of material interest. Aristotle taught that friendship is a single soul in two bodies that links equals, not masters and slaves. Masters despots, tyrants see their slaves as extensions of themselves and cannot tolerate their independence.

Friendship, Cicero wrote, can exist only among good men. A man must first be good himself and then seek another like himself. Eighteenth-century Virginians judged newly imported Africans stupid when they broke hoes or feigned inability to use them. Mothers exchanged babies to collect more than one present for each. Whites laughed good-heartedly at such clever servants. He will do his task, and no human power can make him do any more.

Merrill of Memphis offered a scientific rationale, repeated in medical and agricultural journals: The physical constitution of blacks prevented their being driven to excessive labor. Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, appealing to common sense, scoffed at the sham that had slavery weigh more on masters than slaves. Edmund Ruffin lashed out at the hypocrisy of slaves who pretended ignorance of matters they understood well.

He told masters to stop acting like fools and hold slaves responsible for their actions. Planters learned as much during the War, when slaves balked or deserted.

Death of a Dunwoody Matron (Sheila Travis Series #5)

Taveau acknowledged having been deceived in believing slaves attached to their masters. They behaved as badly toward good masters as toward bad. Slaves exchanged testimonies of affection and gifts with white children away at school or in the Confederate army. Nothing pleased masters and mistresses more than to receive cheerful greetings from slaves. Confederate troops welcomed greetings especially when they came — as Elise Young assured William N. From the earliest days, astonished slaveholders ranted against ungrateful slaves who repaid kindness by running off or turning on them.

Servants stole one to two hundred dollars from the Carmichaels. Why, some of my negroes rested far more than I do; they had plenty to eat and drink. If slaves intended to wound their masters deeply, they could not have done better. The white men whose behavior she complained of had long dominated the southern scene. By the nineteenth century, it had become a gesture of equality or friendship.

Hence, racial loathing made casual hand shaking rare in the North. Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina, speaking in Congress during the Missouri crisis, explained the southern view of hand shaking as evidence of mutual affection. He did not mention that interracial hand shaking rarely occurred on the streets or in public places. But he did mention that slaveholders conversed much more easily with their slaves than Northerners conversed with their laborers and servants, for Southerners recognized no civil or other equality.

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Southern senators quoted General William Moultrie of South Carolina on the kind greetings he received from his slaves upon returning to his plantation after the Revolutionary War. George Tucker recounted how cheerily the slaves greeted Jefferson when he returned to Monticello, pouring out cares and troubles and expecting his personal attention. George S. Author: Patricia Sprinkle 5. What does a Dunwoody matron wear to a funeral? Her black tennis dress. It's no joke, however, when the funeral is given for your high school buddy's wife, and she has been brutally murdered. Sheila Travis, successful corporate executive and attractive fortyish widow, has met Yvonne Delacourt once, at a party.

Yvonne is stunning, ambitious-and intensely disliked. Under the local residents' gracious veneer of Southern hospitality, Sheila senses their seething antagonism to young Mrs. When Yvonne is found stabbed to death, the police focus on her husband, Walt, as the most likely suspect. Sheila sets out to clear the pal of her youth by finding out more about those Dunwoody residents who loathed the alluring victim.